Last-mile travel and bicycle sharing system in small/medium sized cities: user’s preferences investigation using hybrid choice model

  • Muhammad Adnan
  • Shahbaz Altaf
  • Tom Bellemans
  • Ansar-ul-Haque Yasar
  • Elhadi M. Shakshuki
Original Research


First and last-mile access to and from public transport stations/stops is a major problem for encouraging public transport use. Bicycle sharing schemes have shown potential to fill this gap. Consequently, railway operators in the Netherland and Germany have started their own bike sharing schemes. Majority of the studies examined the preferences for using bike share schemes for larger cities. This study analyses the collected stated preference survey data for the use of bicycle sharing scheme for last mile travel, which is recently launched in small/medium sized cities of Belgium. Within this scheme a single docking station is available and users need to return bicycle at the same station. The survey also includes questions on respondents attitudes towards friendliness-to-cycling. The hybrid choice modelling framework is used to investigate preferences of users. Usual explanatory variables such as temperature, rain conditions, distance, rental cost, gender and age are found significant, which confirms the findings of earlier studies. Along with these; last-mile (to home) and an interaction term between rental cost and duration to keep bicycle are found significant, which indicate the negative effects of having a single docking station. Availability of escorting facility from parents/colleague/friends (a more common phenomenon in small/medium cities) also has a negative effect on the use of the examined bike share scheme. Paper also discusses promotional campaigns and marketing efforts according to the obtained results for making such schemes more successful.


Bicycle sharing system Last-mile travel Stated-preference survey Hybrid choice model Small/medium sized cities in Belgium 



We acknowledge the support of Ms. Nadine Smeyers and Mr. Marc Thoelen for translating the survey questionnaire in Dutch and French languages. The part of this work was presented in the 97th Annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, offering valuable reflections for during the publication of this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UHasselt- Hasselt University, Transportation Research Institute (IMOB)DiepenbeekBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Urban and Public AffairsUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  3. 3.Jodrey School of Computer ScienceAcadia UniversityWolfvilleCanada

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