Journal of Visualization

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 321–335 | Cite as

Flow visualization of simple pipe and channel flows obtained by MRI time-slip method

  • Kazunori HosotaniEmail author
  • Atsushi Ono
  • Kazuhiro Takeuchi
  • Yusuke Hashiguchi
  • Tomoya Nagahata
Regular Paper


Herein, time-resolved magnetic resonance imaging, a noninvasive medical diagnostic imaging technique, was evaluated as a noncontact measurement tool for intuitively understanding fluid machineries. Simple pipe flows and channel flows are investigated by the 2D time–spatial labeling inversion pulse (2D time–SLIP) method, which can track a labeled water mass and visualize it using two-dimensional images. In this article, moving water masses of steady and pulsating pipe flows in a straight single pipe and a double cylindrical pipe (which are often seen in fluid machines and heat exchangers) are described. Then, abruptly contracting and expanding channels were tested and compared with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements or numerical simulations to evaluate their validity. In addition, as a feasibility test, a rotating water wheel and a fluidic diode with a strong swirling flow were tested to estimate this method’s applicability to fluid machines. The results suggest that the time-SLIP method of tracking a labeled water mass is sufficiently accurate for use in simple fluid machinery under low Re number conditions.

Graphical abstract


Flow visualization Water Particle image velocimetry (PIV) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Hagen–Poiseuille flow Pulsating flow Fluid machinery Time-SLIP method 



We wish to thank Dr. Feifei Zhao and Ms. Mai Akiyama for their assistance with MRI and PIV measurements. A part of this work was supported by JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 16K06100.


  1. Alperin N, Lee SH, Sivaramakrishnan A, Hushek SH (2005) Quantifying the effect of posture on intracranial physiology in humans by MRI flow studies. J Magn Reson Imaging 22:591–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashino I (1965) Theory on Laminar flow between eccentric straight pipes (exact solution), Memoirs of the Faculty of Engineering, University of Fukui, 13(1):77–85Google Scholar
  3. Benson MJ, Elkins CJ, Eaton JK (2011) Measurements of 3D velocity and scalar field for a film-cooled airfoil trailing edge. J Exp Fluids 51(2):443–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bottan S, Poulikakos D, Kurtcuoglu V (2012) Phantom model of physiologic intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 59(6):1532–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brunner E, Haake M, Kaiser L (1999) Gas flow MRI using circulating laser-polarized 129Xe. J Magn Reson 138:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grattoni CA, Al-Mahrooqi SH, Moss AK, Muggeridge AH, Jing XD (2003) An improved technique for deriving drainage capillary pressure from NMR T2 distributions. In: Proceedings of international symposium of the society of core analysts, SCA 2003-25Google Scholar
  7. Hilty C, McDonnell E, Granwehr J, Pierce K, Han S, Pines A (2005) Microfuidic gas-fow profiling using remote-detection NMR. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(42):14960–14963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Isoda H, Hirano M, Takeda H, Kosugi T, Alley MT, Markl M, Pelc NJ, Sakahara H (2006) Visualization of hemodynamics in a silicon aneurysm model using time-resolved, 3D, phase-contrast MRI. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:1119–1122Google Scholar
  9. Isoda H, Takehara Y, Kosugi T, Terada M, Naito T, Onishi Y, Tanoi C, Amaya K, Sakahara H (2015) MR-based computational fluid dynamics with patient-specific boundary conditions for the initiation of a sidewall aneurysm of a basilar artery. Magn Reson Med Sci 14(2):139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Khodarahmi I, Shakeri M, Kotys-Traughber M, Fischer S, Sharp MK, Amini A (2012) Accuracy of flow measurement with phase contrast MRI in a stenotic phantom: where should flow be measured? J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 14:219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Koptyug IV, Kabanikhin SI, Iskakov KT, Fenelonov VB, Khitrina LY, Sagdeev RZ, Parmon VN (2000) A quantitative NMR imaging study of mass transport in porous solids during drying. Chem Eng Sci 55:1559–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koptyug IV, Ilyina LY, Matveev AV, Sagdeev RZ, Parmon VN, Altobelli SA (2001) Liquid and gas flow and related phenomena in monolithic catalysts studied by 1H NMR microimaging. Catal Today 69:385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ku JP, Elkins CJ, Taylor CA (2005) Comparison of CFD and MRI flow and velocities in an in vitro large artery bypass graft model. IEEE Ann Biomed Eng 33(3):257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Markl M, Chan FP, Alley MT, Wedding KL, Draney MT, Elkins CJ, Parker DW, Wicker R, Taylor CA, Herfkens RJ, Pelc NJ (2003) Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 17:499–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Matsui G, Monji H (2002) Full-field visualization measurement in fluid mechanics. J Jpn Soc Exp Mech 2(1):3–8Google Scholar
  16. Muto T, Nakane K (1994) Unsteady flow in a circular tube: on velocity distribution. Trans Jpn Soc Mech Eng B46(404):610–618 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  17. Ono A (title in Japanese) (2014) In: Proceedings of 70th Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  18. Pål Ove Sukka A (2004) Improving the nuclear tracer imaging centrifuge method for measuring in-situ capillary pressures and comparisons with other methods. Master Thesis of University of BergenGoogle Scholar
  19. Shiodera T, Yui M, Yamada S (2014) Automated quantification technology for cerebrospinal fluid dynamics based on magnetic resonance image analysis. Toshiba Rev 69(12):27–30Google Scholar
  20. Shonai T, Takahashi T, Ikeguchi H, Miyazaki M, Amano K, Yui M (2009) Improved arterial visibility using short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) fat suppression in non-contrast-enhanced time–spatial labeling inversion pulse (time–SLIP) renal MR angiography (MRA). J Magn Reson Imaging 29(6):1471–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. The Visualization Society of Japan (2002) PIV handbook. Morikita Publishing, Tokyo, p 328 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  22. Wang Y, Kim SE, DiBella EVR, Parker DL (2010) Flow measurement in MRI using arterial spin labeling with cumulative readout pulses—theory and validation. J Med Phys 37(11):5801–5810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Washio S, Konishi T, Tamai K (1986) Research on wave phenomena in hydraulic lines: 13th report, transient wave in a double pipe. Trans Jpn Soc Mech Eng B52(473):10–17 (in Japanese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yamada S, Tsuchiya K, Bradley WG, Law M, Winkler ML, Borzage M, Miyazaki MJ, Kelly EJ, McComb JG (2014) Current and emerging MR imaging techniques for the diagnosis and management of CSF flow disorders: a review of phase-contrast and time–spatial labeling inversion pulse. Toshiba Rev 69(12):27–30Google Scholar
  25. Yokosawa S, Nakamura M, Wada S, Isoda H, Takeda H, Yamaguchi T (2005) Quantitative measurements on the human ascending aortic flow using 2D cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. JSME Int J Ser C 48(4):459–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zun Z, Wong EC, Nayak KS (2009) Assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) in humans using arterial spin labeling (ASL): feasibility and noise analysis. Magn Reson Med 62:975–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Visualization Society of Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazunori Hosotani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Atsushi Ono
    • 2
  • Kazuhiro Takeuchi
    • 3
  • Yusuke Hashiguchi
    • 2
  • Tomoya Nagahata
    • 1
  1. 1.Electronics and Control Division, National Institute of TechnologyTsuyama CollegeOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.Kousei HospitalOkayamaJapan
  3. 3.National Hospital OrganizationOkayama Medical CenterOkayamaJapan

Personalised recommendations