Journal of Visualization

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 305–319 | Cite as

Simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields using thermographic phosphor tracer particles

  • Dong Kim
  • Seung Jae Yi
  • Hyun Dong KimEmail author
  • Kyung Chun Kim
Regular Paper


A simple and inexpensive measurement system is suggested to measure the temperature and velocity fields simultaneously at high temperature using thermographic phosphor tracer particles. A 385-nm UV–LED and only one high-speed camera with a CMOS sensor were used for the simultaneous measurement system. The dispersion of a confined oil jet with high temperature was investigated to validate the system. The instantaneous temperature and velocity fields were obtained when silicon oil at 200 °C was injected into a silicon oil chamber at 25 °C. The decay-slope method was used for the temperature field analysis, and the velocity field was obtained by a two-frame cross-correlation algorithm. The velocity of the injected silicon oil rapidly decreased because of the change in viscosity of the silicon oil with temperature. The selection of an appropriate interrogation window size is suggested to take the moving distance of temperature-sensitive particles into account for accurate temperature measurement.

Graphical abstract

Open image in new window


Thermographic phosphor particles PIV Simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity Pulsed UV–LED Decay-slope method 



This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP (No. 2011-0030013). This research was also supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (No. 2013R1A1A2065648).


  1. Abe S, Okamoto K, Madarame H (2004) The development of PIV–PSP hybrid system using pressure sensitive particles. Meas Sci Technol 15:1153–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abram C, Fond B, Heyes AL, Beyrau F (2013) High-speed planar thermometry and velocimetry using thermographic phosphor particles. Appl Phys B 111:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adrian RJ (1984) Scattering particle characteristics and their effect on pulsed laser measurements of fluid-flow—speckle velocimetry vs particle image velocimetry. Appl Opt 23:1690–1691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison SW, Beshears DL, Cates MR, Paranthaman M, Gilles GT (2001) LED-induced fluorescence diagnostics for turbine and combustion engine thermometry. In: Int Symp on Opt Sci and Technol pp 28–35Google Scholar
  5. Atakan B, Eckert C, Pflitsch C (2009) Light emitting diode excitation of Cr3+:Al2O3 as thermographic phosphor: experiments and measurement strategy. Meas Sci Technol 20(7):075304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blasse G, Grabmaier BC (1994) Luminescent materials. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p 190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brübach J, Zetterberg J, Omrane A, Li ZS, Aldén M, Dreizler A (2006) Determination of surface normal temperature gradients using thermographic phosphors and filtered Rayleigh scattering. Appl Phys B 84:537–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beshears DL, Capps G, Cates, MR, Simmons CM, Schwenterly S (1990) Laser-induced fluorescence of phosphors for remote cryogenic thermometry. In: Proc SPIE fiber optic smart structures and skins III, 1370Google Scholar
  9. Fond B, Abram C, Heyes AL, Kempf AM, Beyrau F (2012) Simultaneous temperature, mixture fraction and velocity imaging in turbulent flows using thermographic phosphor tracer particles. Opt Exp 20(20):22118–22133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Heyes AL, Seefeldt S, Feist JP (2006) Two-colour phosphor thermometry for surface temperature measurement. Opt Laser Technol 38:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Khalid AH, Kontis K (2008) Thermographic phosphors for high temperature measurements: principles, current state of the art and recent applications. Sensors 8:5673–5744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim HD, Yi SJ, Kim KC (2013) Simultaneous measurement of dissolved oxygen concentration and velocity field in microfluidics using oxygen-sensitive particles. Microfluid Nanofluid 15:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Omrane A, Petersson P, Aldén M, Linne MA (2008) Simultaneous 2D flow velocity and gas temperature measurements using thermographic phosphors. Appl Phys B 92:99–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rothamer DA, Jordan J (2012) Planar imaging thermometry in gaseous flows using upconversion excitation of thermographic phosphors. Appl Phys B 106:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Someya S, Yoshida S, Li Y, Okamoto K (2009) Combined measurement of velocity and temperature distributions in oil based on the luminescent lifetimes of seeded particles. Meas Sci Technol 20(2):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Someya S, Uchida M, Tominaga K, Terunuma H, Li Y, Okamoto K (2011) Lifetime-based phosphor thermometry of an optical engine using a high-speed CMOS camera. Int J Heat Mass Transf 54:3927–3932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tropea C, Yarin AL, Foss JF (2007) Springer handbook of experimental fluid mechanics, vol 1. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yi SJ, Kim KC (2014) Phosphorescence-based multiphysics visualization: a review. J Vis 17:253–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yi SJ, Kim HD, Kim KC (2014) Decay slope method for 2-dimensional temperature field measurement using thermographic phosphors. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 59:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Visualization Society of Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dong Kim
    • 1
  • Seung Jae Yi
    • 2
  • Hyun Dong Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kyung Chun Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringPusan National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Rocket Propulsion TeamKorea Aerospace Research InstituteDaejeonRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations