Keratinolytic Enzyme from a Thermotolerant Isolate Bacillus sp. NDS-10: An Efficient Green Biocatalyst for Poultry Waste Management, Laundry and Hide-dehairing Applications

Abstract

Background: The enzymatic degradation of keratin-rich wastes by a keratinolytic microorganism is a preferable and eco-friendly biotechnological alternative for the valorization of these compounds. Despite their recalcitrant behavior, hydrolysis of these wastes can be efficiently done by microbial proteolytic enzyme known as keratinase. Objective: In the present study, a potent keratinolytic bacterial strain with a great potential of feathers’ degradation was isolated and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Bacillus sp. NDS-10. Results: After optimization, high-yield of extracellular keratinase (92 U mL−1) and bioconversion of feathers (97%) were achieved in M9 medium (pH 7.0) containing 0.8% (w/v) native chicken feathers after 20 h incubation at 45 °C. The crude keratinase exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.0–8.0 (Tris-Cl buffer) and 65 °C; and showed great stability over a range of pH (6.0–10.0) and temperature (20-60°C) for 6 h. No inhibitory influence was observed with various chemical modulators, commercial detergents and salt but phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) completely repressed the keratinolytic activity of enzyme. The enzyme effectively dehaired goat hide after 6 h without any damage and completely removed the blood-stain after 5 min incubation. Conclusion: These favorable features indicated that this keratinolytic enzyme seems to be an efficient and eco-friendly candidate for keratin-waste management, detergents formulations and hide-depilation application.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a Grant No. 5-9/PAS/727 from Pakistan Academy of Science, Islamabad, Pakistan.

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FA wrote the manuscript, carried out experiments, analyzed the data and performed statistical analysis. IH: designed and conceptualized the study and supervised all work. AKH: conducted research work. ZA: collected soil sample and performed isolation and screening. ZJ: as a research assistant carried out some experiments work. IMB: assisted in some research work. RA: assisted in some research work.

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Correspondence to Fatima Akram.

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Akram, F., Haq, I.u., Hayat, A.K. et al. Keratinolytic Enzyme from a Thermotolerant Isolate Bacillus sp. NDS-10: An Efficient Green Biocatalyst for Poultry Waste Management, Laundry and Hide-dehairing Applications. Waste Biomass Valor (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-021-01369-2

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Keywords

  • Biodegradation
  • Dehairing
  • Keratinase
  • Optimization
  • Bacillus sp. NDS-10