Table 2 Ultimate analysis (wt%) of the biomass fuels, biochar and ashes (Mean ± standard deviation of triplicate measurements, nd = not detected)

From: Evaluation of Biochar Post‐Process Treatments to Produce Soil Enhancers and Phosphorus Fertilizers at a Single Plant

Sample C H N O S O:C H:C
Sewage sludge 29.9 ± 3.20 4 ± 0.21 4.8 ± 0.24 14.7 ± 1.75 3.6 ± 0.63 0.37 ± 0.0 1.60 ± 0.09
Biochar 21.7 ± 2.10 0.7 ± 0.08 1.8 ± 0.30 4.9 ± 0.38 2.9 ± 0.36 0.17± 0.0 0.38 ± 0.01
Oxidation ash 0.5 ± 0.07 nd 0.1 ± 0.08 3.5 ± 0.58 0.7 ± 0.13 5.24± 0.12 0.00
Gasification ash 0.35 ± 0.03 nd nd nd nd Nd 0.00
Biogas fiber 37.9 ± 11.50 5.4 ± 0.21 5.5 ± 1.02 17.6 ± 2.24 1 ± 0.31 0.35 ± 0.01 1.68 ± 0.08
Biochar 31.9 ± 2.60 0.8 ± 0.03 2.8 ± 0.68 4.3 ± 0.85 0.3 ± 0.07 0.03 ± 0.01 0.23 ± 0.01
Oxidation ash 3.4 ± 0.16 nd 0.4 ± 0.09 3.3 ± 0.21 nd 1.10 ± 0.01 0.00
Gasification ash 0.3 ± 0.08 nd nd 1.1 ± 0.94 nd nd 0.00
Cattle manure 39.1 ± 2.25 5.5 ± 0.07 2.9 ± 0.45 18.4 ± 1.60 5.4 ± 0.51 0.56 ± 0.02 1.46 ± 0.08
Biochar 31.6 ± 4.13 0.6 ± 0.11 2.8 ± 0.37 1.4 ± 0.77 0.5 ± 0.07 0.10 ± 0.01 0.29 ± 0.12
Oxidation ash 1.3 ± 0.10 0 0.1 ± 0.02 1.9 ± 0.16 1.1 ± 0.073 2.60 ± 0.38 nd
Gasification ash 12 ± 1.45 0 0.3 ± 0.01 0 0.1 ± 0.04 5.22 ± 1.12 nd
Poultry manure 44.1 ± 3.00 5.4 ± 0.66 2.2 ± 0.31 33.2 ± 3.37 1.3 ± 0.16 0.35 ± 0.03 1.70 ± 0.01
Biochar 53.1 ± 3.25 1.3 ± 0.61 1.7 ± 0.73 7.4 ± 1.28 0.5 ± 0.03 0.10 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.01
Oxidation ash 2.1 ± 0.80 nd 0.1 ± 0.05 7 ± 1.77 0.3 ± 0.08 0.73 ± 0.01 nd
Gasification ash 0.7 ± 0.03 nd 0.4 ± 0.02 4.9 ± 1.25 nd 2.44 ± 1.76 nd
Woodchips 47.0 ± 2.04 6.3 ± 2.08 0.27 ± 0.03 37.7 ± 4.00 1.8 ± 0.89 0.60 ± 0.04 1.59 ± 0.46
Biochar 86.1 ± 3.36 2.9 ± 0.44 1.37 ± 0.21 2.9 ± 0.27 0.5 ± 0.15 0.03 ± 0.00 0.40 ± 0.05
Oxidation ash 7.2 ± 2.1 nd 0.2 ± 0.02 16.2 ± 3.04 nd 1.73 ± 0.19 nd
Gasification ash 2.7 ± 0.35 0.7 ± 0.8 nd 11.7 ± 1.51 0.2 ± 0.02 3.25 ±0.00 3.10 ± 0.02
Wheat straw 48.1 ± 5.10 7.3 ± 2.20 2.2 ± 0.37 32.8 ± 2.30 4.6 ± 0.90 0.51 ± 0.02 1.79 ± 0.36
Biochar 73 ± 4.15 1.9 ± 0.50 1.9 ± 0.28 4.6 ± 0.67 nd 0.05 ± 0.00 0.31 ± 0.06
Oxidation ash 1.3 ± 0.06 nd 0.1 ± 0.01 11.1 ± 1.82 0.3 ± 0.10 6.39 ± 0.076 nd
Gasification ash 15.6 ± 1.20 0.1 ± 0.01 nd nd nd nd 0.08 ± 0 0.00