In this study, the coagulation performance of a biomass-based fly ash leachate (FLC) and alum on a thermomechanical pulping (TMP) pressate was compared systematically.
Fly ash leachate (FLC) was first produced via mixing fly ash with water and extracting the soluble part of fly ash. Then, the coagulation performance of FLC in TMP pressate was studied and compared with that of alum, as a benchmark. The effects of the dosage of the coagulant and treatment time on the chord length of particles in the TMP pressate as well as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and lignin content of the TMP pressate were systematically monitored.
It was observed that FLC and alum coagulated the dissolved materials of the TMP pressate. The COD and lignin removals were 18.4% and 26.9%, respectively, when FLC was added to a TMP pressate under the conditions of 5060 mg/kg FLC/TMP pressate, 200 rpm, pH 12.5 298 K and 30 min. Calcium ions of FLC were the main contributor to the coagulation performance of FLC for TMP pressate. The chord length analysis of solution revealed that the particles in the 1–10 and 10–50 µm ranges were rapidly coagulated, forming larger aggregates in the 50–150 and 150–300 µm size ranges and reaching the maximum mean chord length within approximately 4 min when the coagulant was an alum. FLC led to the slower conversion of particles in 1–10 µm range and a faster conversion in the 10–50 and 50–150 µm ranges than alum did. As FLC can be readily produced inexpensively onsite, it could be a suitable coagulant for eliminating the dissolved components of the pulp and paper effluents.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Chen, J., Adjallé, K., Barnabé, S., Perrier, M., Paris, J.: Mechanical and thermal pretreatment processes for increasing sugar production from woody biomass via enzymatic hydrolysis. Waste Biomass Valoriz. 10(7), 2057–2065 (2019)
Zupančič, G.D., Roš, M.: Determination of chemical oxygen demand in substrates from anaerobic treatment of solid organic waste. Waste Biomass Valoriz. 3, 89–98 (2012)
Valta, K., Damala, P., Panaretou, V., Orli, E., Moustakas, K., Loizidou, M.: Review and assessment of waste and wastewater treatment from fruits and vegetables processing industries in Greece. Waste Biomass Valoriz. 8, 1629–1648 (2017)
Thompson, G., Swain, J., Kay, M., Forster, C.F.: The treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent: a review. Bioresour. Technol. 77, 275–286 (2001)
Pokhrel, D., Viraraghavan, T.: Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater - a review. Sci. Total Environ. 333, 37–58 (2004)
Kamali, M., Khodaparast, Z.: Review on recent developments on pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 114, 326–342 (2015)
Teh, C.Y., Budiman, M., Shak, K.P.Y., Wu, T.Y.: Recent advancement of coagulation-flocculation and its application in wastewater treatment. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 55, 4363–4389 (2016)
Wu, C., Bing, L., Li, S., Yu, D., Wang, D.: Effect of coagulating agents on lignin and oligosaccharide contents in pre-hydrolysis liquor obtained in the production of dissolving pulp from poplar residual slabs. BioResources 11(1), 87–94 (2016)
Stephenson, R.J., Duff, S.J.B.: Coagulation and precipitation of a mechanical pulping effluent I. Removal of carbon, colour and turbidity. Water Res. 30(4), 781–792 (1996)
Chaudhari, P.K., Majumdar, B., Choudhary, R., Yadav, D.K., Chand, S.: Treatment of paper and pulp mill effluent by coagulation. Environ. Technol. 31(4), 357–363 (2010)
He, L., Liu, Q., Song, Y., Deng, Y.: Effects of metal chlorides on the solubility of lignin in the black liquor of prehydrolysis kraft pulping. BioResources 92(2), 4636–4642 (2014)
Sundberg, K., Thornton, J., Petterson, C., Holmbon, B., Ekman, R.: Calcium-induced aggregation of dissolved and colloidal substances in mechanical pulp suspensions. J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 20(11), 317–321 (1994)
Yuliani, G., Chaffe, A.L., Garnier, G.: Biorefinery process water effluent treatments by salt coagulation. Biomass Bioenergy 56, 189–196 (2013)
Guo, X., Zhang, S., Shan, X.Q.: Adsorption of metal ions on lignin. J. Hazard. Mater. 151, 134–142 (2008)
Hojaji, E.: Investigation of trace metal binding properties of lignin by diffusive gradients in this films. Chemosphere 89, 319–326 (2012)
Wu, Y., Zhang, S., Guo, X., Huang, H.: Adsorption of chromium(III) on lignin. Bioresour. Technol. 99, 7709–7715 (2008)
Zhuang, J.M., Walsh, T., Lam, T.: A new technology for the treatment of mercury contaminated water and soils. Environ. Technol. 24, 897–902 (2003)
Sundin, J.: Precipitation of Kraft lignin under alkaline conditions. Royal Institute of Technology Department of Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Technology Stockholm, Doctoral Thesis (2000)
Cave, G., Fatehi, P.: Adsorption optimization of a biomass-based fly ash for treating thermomechanical pulping (TMP) pressate using definitive screening design (DSD). Can. J. Chem. Eng. 9999, 1–11 (2018)
Cave, G., Fatehi, P.: Impact of physicochemical properties of biomass-based fly ash on lignocellulose removal from pulping spent liquor. BioResources 13(4), 9092–9115 (2018)
Cave, G., Fatehi, P.: Leaching characteristics of biomass fly ash in water and a TMP spent liquor: a case study. J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 151–160 (2018)
Roberts, B.G.: Method of removing toxic resin acids and fatty acids from pulp and paper effluent and other streams. U.S. Patent 5,368,742, November 29, 1994. https://www.google.com/patents/US5368742. Accessed 3 Oct 2015
Opedal, M.T., Stenius, P., Johansson, L., Hill, J., Sandberg, C.: Removal of dissolved and colloidal substances in water from compressive pre-treatment of chips using dissolved air flotation - pilot trial. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 26(4), 364–371 (2011)
Zhu, Z., Wang, X., Dai, S., Huang, S., He, Q.: Fractional characteristics of coal fly ash for beneficial use. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 25(1), 63–69 (2013)
Fatehi, P., Gao, W., Sun, Y., Dashtban, M.: Acidification of prehydrolysis liquor and spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping process. Bioresour. Technol. 218, 518–525 (2016)
Wynn, E.: Relationship between particle-size and chord-length distributions in focused beam reflectance measurement: stability of direct inversion and weighting. Powder Technol. 133, 125–133 (2003)
Saeed, A., Jahan, M.S., Li, H., Liu, Z., Ni, Y., van Heiningen, A.: Mass balances of components dissolved in the pre-hydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process from Canadian hardwoods. Biomass Bioenergy. 39, 14–19 (2012)
Liu, Z., Fatehi, P., Jahan, M.S., Ni, Y.: Separation of lignocellulosic materials by combined processes of pre hydrolysis and ethanol extraction. Bioresour. Technol. 102(2), 1264–1269 (2011)
Oveissi, F., Fatehi, P.: Isolating lignin from spent liquor of thermomechanical pulping process via adsorption. Environ. Technol. 35(20), 2597–2603 (2015)
Wang, W.L.Q., Cui, S.W., Huang, X., Kakuda, Y.: Elimination of aggregates of (13) (14)-β-D-glucan in dilute solutions for light scattering and size exclusion chromatography study. Food Hydrocoll. 20, 361–368 (2006)
Ratnaweera, D.R., Saha, D., Pingali, S.V., Labbe, N., Naskar, A.K., Dadmun, M.: The impact of lignin source on its self-assembly in solution. RSC Adv. 5, 67258–67266 (2015)
Environmental Protection Act, R.S.O., 1990, c. E.19, O. Reg. 560/94: Effluent monitoring and effluent limits – metal mining sector. https://www.ontario.ca/laws/regulation/940560. Accessed Oct 2015
Crittenden, J.C., Trussell, R.R., Hand, D.W., Howe, K.J., Tchobanoglous, G.: MWH’s Water Treatment: Principles and Design, 3rd edn. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken (2012)
Benjamin, M.M., Lawler, D.F.: Water Quality Engineering: Physical/Chemical Treatment Processes. John Wiley and Sons Inc, Hoboken (2013)
Bratby, J.: Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment. IWA Publishing, London (2016)
Rintala, J.A., Puhakka, J.A.: Anaerobic treatment in pulp- and paper-mill waste management: a review. Bioresour. Technol. 47, 1–18 (1994)
The authors would like to acknowledge the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, Ontario Research Fund, Canada Research Chair, Northern Ontario Heritage Fund Corporation, NSERC, and CRIBE for funding this research project.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Cave, G., Gao, W. & Fatehi, P. Coagulation Efficiency of Biomass Fly Ash Leachate in Thermomechanical Pulping (TMP) Pressate. Waste Biomass Valor (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-020-01335-4
- Fly ash
- Waste management