Amino Acid Enriched Proteinous Wastes: Recovery and Reuse in Leather Making

Abstract

Environmental constraints have become the key issue for sustenance of industries worldwide. In leather industry, solid wastes create major problem to the environment, among which animal fleshing constitute a major portion. The main objective of this study is to evolve a simple, eco-benign method for the utilization of solid wastes to produce value added product. The product was developed by hydrolysis using alkaline protease (a novel Bacillus crolab 5468), which can be potentially used for surface upgradation of leather. Molecular mass of the polypeptides was found to be 9 kDa at 30 min and 6 kDa at 60 min of hydrolysis by MALDI-TOF. Furthermore, the polypeptides treated leather exhibited uniform grain pattern, better filling and strength properties compared to untreated leather. High value-added product presents a strong case for sustainable leather production as it adds both economic and environmental benefits to leather making.

Graphic Abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    Guanyu, Z., Lixiang, Z., Shimei, W.: An acid—tolerant heterotrophic microorganism role in improving tannery sludge bioleaching conducted in successive multi-batch reaction systems. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 4151–4156 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kumar, A.G., Swarnalatha, S., Sairam, B., Sekaran, G.: Production of alkaline protease by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using proteinaceous solid waste generated from leather manufacturing industries. Bioresour. Technol. 99, 1939–1944 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Caroline, B.A., Franciela, S.M., Costab, M.G.: Biogas production for anaerobic co-digestion of tannery solid wastes under presence and absence of the tanning agent. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 130, 51–59 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Sundar, V.J., Raghava Rao, J., Muralidharan, C., Mandal, A.B.: Recovery and utilization of chromium-tanned proteinous wastes of leather making: a review. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 2048–2075 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Taylor, M.M., Cabeza, L.F., Dimaio, G.L.: Processing of leather waste: pilot scale studies on chrome shavings. Part I. Isolation and characterization of protein products and separation of chrome cake. J. Am. Leather Chem. Assoc. 93, 61–82 (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Sundar, V.J., Ramesh, R., Rao, P.S., Saravanan, P., Sridharnath, B., Muralidharan, C.: Water management in leather industry. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 60, 443–450 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Zieljko, B., Valerije, V.: Thermal and enzymatic recovering of proteins from untanned leather waste. Waste Manag. 21, 79–84 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Maria, J.F., Manuel, F.A., Sıilvia, C.P., Joana, R.G., Jose, L.R.: Alkaline hydrolysis of chromium tanned leather scrap fibers and anaerobic biodegradation of the products. Waste Biomass Valor. 5, 551–562 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Cecilia, A., Barbara, P., Tullia, T., Chiara, B., Giovanni, S., Peter, A.W., Arnaldo, D., Stefano, S.: Degradation of collagen increases nitrogen solubilisation during enzymatic hydrolysis of fleshing meat. Waste Biomass Valor. 9, 1113–1119 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Vasudevan, N., Ravindran, A.D.: Biotechnological process for the treatment of fleshing from tannery industries for methane generation. Curr. Sci. 93, 1492–1494 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Sumathi, C., Sekaran, G.: Nutritional evaluation of animal fleshing as a fish meal replacer in Labeo rohita. J. Aqua Feed Sci. Nutr. 2(2–4), 6–10 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Shanmugam, P., Horan, N.J.: Optimising the biogas production from leather fleshing waste by co-digestion with MSW. Bioresour. Technol. 100, 4117–4120 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Ravindran, B., Sekaran, G.: Bacterial composting of animal fleshing generated from tannery industries. Waste Manag. 30, 2622–2630 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Langmaier, F., Stibora, M., Mladek, M., Kolomaznik, K.: Gel-sol transitions of chrome tanned leather waste hydrolysate. J. Am. Leather Chem. Assoc. 85, 100–105 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Langmaier, F., Mokrejs, P., Kolomaznik, K., Mladek, M.: Biodegradable packing materials from hydrolysates of collagen waste proteins. Waste Manag. 28, 549–556 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Castiello, D., Puccini, M., Salvadori, M., Vitolo, S.: Reutilization of skin fleshing-derived collagen hydrolyzate in the re-tanning dyeing/fat liquoring phases. IULTCS II Euro Congress Istanbul, pp. 1–16 (2006)

  17. 17.

    Ranjithkumar, A., Durga, J., Ramesh, R., Rose, C., Muralidharan, C.: Cleaner processing: a sulphide—free approach for depilation of skins. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 24, 180–188 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    American Public Health Association, APHA: Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 16th edn. APHA, Washington, DC (1985)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Neuman, R.E., Logan, M.A.: The determination of hydroxyproline. J. Biol. Chem. 184, 299–306 (1950)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Association of Official Analytical Chemists, AOAC: Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. Arlington, AOAC (1990)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., Randall, R.J.: Protein measurement with folin-phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265–273 (1951)

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Ganesh Kumar, A., Nagesh, N., Prabhakar, T.G., Sekaran, G.: Purification of extracellular acid protease and analysis of fermentation metabolites by Synergistes sp. utilizing proteinaceous solid waste from tanneries. Bioresour. Technol. 99, 2364–2372 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Yamini, S.H., Sreeram, K.J., Nair, B.U.: Aggregation of mucin by chromium (III) complexes as revealed by electro kinetic and rheological studies: influence on the tryptic and o-glycanase digestion of mucin. JBSD 21, 671 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Corrales, T., Catalina, F., Peinado, C., Allen, N., Fontan, E.: Photo-oxidative and thermal degradation of polyethylene: interrelationship by chemiluminescence, thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR data. J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 147, 213–219 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Kronick, P.L., Buechler, P.R.: Effects of bleaching and tanning on collagen stability, studied by differential scanning calorimeter. J. Am. Leather Chem. Assoc. 81, 213–218 (1986)

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Mclaughlin, G.D., Theis, Z.R.: The chemistry of leather manufacture, vol. 8, pp. 158–160. Reinhold publishing, New York (1945)

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    IUC 8: Determination of chromic oxide content. J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 82, 200–208 (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    IUP 2: Sampling. J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 84, 303–309 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    IUP 16: Determination of shrinkage temperature. J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 84, 359 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Luo, M.R., Rigg, B.: The exploitation of colour physics technology in the textile industry—a study in technology transfer. J. Soc. Dyers Chem. 83, 103 (1987)

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    IUP 18: Measurements of tear load—double edge tear. J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 84, 327–329 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Ramasami, T.: Approach towards a unified theory for tanning: Wilsons dream. J. Am. Leather Chem. Assoc. 96, 290–304 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Zhang, F., Wang, A., Li, Z., He, S., Shao, L.: Preparation and characterisation of collagen from freshwater fish scales. Food Nutr. Sci. 2, 818–823 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Doyle, B.B., Bendit, E.G., Blout, E.R.: Infrared spectroscopy of collagen and collagen-like polypeptides. Biopolymers 14(5), 937–957 (1975)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Payne, K.J., Veis, A.: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of collagen and gelatin solutions: de-convolution of the Amide I band for conformational studies. Biopolymers 27, 1749–1760 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Elliott, A., Ambrose, E.J.: Structure of synthetic polypeptides. Nature 165, 921–922 (1985)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Krimm, S., Bandekar, J.: Vibrational spectroscopy and conformation of peptides, polypeptides, and proteins. Adv. Protein Chem. 38, 181–364 (1986)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Barreto, P.L.M., Pires, A.T.N., Soldi, V.: Thermal degradation of edible films based on milk proteins and gelain in inert atmosphere. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 79, 147–152 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Liu, R., Chen, Y., Fan, H.: Design, characterization, dyeing properties, and application of acid—dyeable polyurethane in the manufacture of microfiber synthetic leather. Fibers Polym. 16, 1970–1980 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Zhang, J., Hu, C.P.: Synthesis, characterization and mechanical properties of polyester-based aliphatic polyurethane elastomers containing hyper branched polyester segments. Eur. Polym. J. 44, 3708–3714 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Yulu, W., Liqiang, J.: Preparation and characterization of self-colored waterborne polyurethane and its application in eco-friendly manufacturing of microfiber synthetic leather base. Polymers. 10, 289 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. (CSIR), New Delhi for funding this research and are thankful to the Director, CSIR—Central Leather Research Institute for his support. The authors also thank UGC-RGNF-1274.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muralidharan Chellappa.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendices

Appendix A

The raw goat skins were taken and soaked in 300% water for 4–5 h. After soaking, the soaked skins were unhaired using 10% lime, 3% sodium sulphide, 20% water mixed and made as a paste and applied on the flesh side of the skins. The unhaired goat skins were subjected to reliming process containing 10% lime and 150% water for 48 h. These limed goat skins were defleshed using fleshing machine. After defleshing, the skins were delimed using 1% (w/w) ammonium chloride with 100% water (w/v) for 45 min in drum, followed by treatment with 1% (w/w) alkali bate for 30 min. The skins were washed and pickled with 8% (w/w) common salt and 80% (w/w) water for 10 min followed by acid treatment. 1% (v/w) sulphuric acid was given for 4 feeds at every 10 min interval and the drum was further run for 60 min. The final pH of pickled skin was 2.8 and the pickled skins were tanned using 8% (w/w) basic chromium sulphate (BCS) in half of the pickle bath for 90 min, then 50% (w/w) water was added and run for 30 min. Followed by which, a 1% (v/w) sodium formate was mixed with 10% (w/v) water and added to the running drum. After 30 min 1% (w/w) sodium bicarbonate was mixed with 10% (w/v) water and fed in 3 instalments at 10 min time intervals. Then, drum was continuously run for more than 60 min. In this process, the final pH of the float was observed to be 3.8.

Appendix B

The chrome tanned leathers (wet blue), produced from standard procedure was given in appendix I. The wet blue leather was washed with 100% (v/w) water in a drum for 10 min, the water was drained out and leathers were treated with neutralizing syntan 1% (v/w) in 100% (v/w) float in a drum and run for 20 min. After this, 0.5% (w/w) sodium formate and 0.5% (w/w) sodium bicarbonate were added to the running drum in 3 feeds at 10 min time interval. After the liquor attained a pH of 5.0, the leathers were washed twice with water 200% (v/w) for 10 min. After completion of washing, 100% (v/w) water with 3% (w/w) resin syntan were added to the drum and run for 20 min. Followed by this, dying was carried out using 2% (w/w) acid dye for 30 min and fat liquoring was carried out with synthetic fat liquor 4% (w/w) in the drum for 30 min. Subsequently melamine based re-tanning syntan 4% (w/w) was added and run for 40 min followed by the addition of synthetic fat liquor 4% (w/w), polymeric fat liquor 3% (w/w) and natural fat liquor oil 4% (w/w) and further running the drum for 40 min. Finally, the auxiliaries were leather was fixed using 2% (v/w) formic acid diluted with 20% (v/w) water and added at 3 feeds at every 10 min interval and the drum was further run for 30 min. After this, the leather was piled for overnight and were subjected to setting and hooked for drying. The dried leathers were staked and buffed using 400 grit emery papers.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ammasi, R., Victor, J.S., Chellan, R. et al. Amino Acid Enriched Proteinous Wastes: Recovery and Reuse in Leather Making. Waste Biomass Valor 11, 5793–5807 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-019-00912-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Limed fleshing wastes
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis
  • Polypeptides
  • Leather making
  • Surface modifier