Co-composting of Olive Industry Wastes with Poultry Manure and Evaluation of the Obtained Compost Maturity

Abstract

The objective of this study is to examine the viability of recycling olive industry wastes by co-composting with poultry manures, describe the evolution of the physic-chemical and microbiological composting parameters, and evaluate the maturity of the obtained compost. The co-composting process applied was a windrow composting process. A pile was prepared by mixing olive mill pomace (OMP) and olive mill solid husk (OMSH) as carbon source, poultry manure (PM) as nitrogen source, green wastes (GW) as bilking agents and olive mill wastewater (OMW) as humidifier. The mixture was prepared based on fresh weight (FW) according to the following proportions: OMP + OMSH = 51.72% FW; GW = 27.58% FW; PM = 20.68% FW and C/N ratio = 29.25. The windrow was arranged in a pile of 1.5 m height, 2 m wide and 2 m length. Results showed that during the composting process, a high microbiological activity was depicted by a quickly increase in temperature (65 °C) in 09 days. An exponential increase in the number of aerobic microorganisms in the pile with a maximum (156 × 108 CFU g−1 FM) after 09 days of incubation and a progressive decrease in the C/N ratio over time were recorded. The obtained compost had a homogeneous particle size with a fine majority fraction (70.41% < 2 mm), a neutral pH (6.69) and a C/N ratio close to 10. It was also rich in minerals fertilizers (P, K, Ca). Finally, the germination tests carried out on 04 different seeds (tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), cresson (Lepidium sativum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) showed that the obtained compost allowed germination index (GI%) values that exceeded 85%, which confirms the non-phytotoxicity of the product.

Graphic Abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. 1.

    Chatzistathis, T., Koutsos, T.: Olive mill wastewater as a source of organic matter, water and nutrients for restoration of degraded soils and for crops managed with sustainable systems. Agric. Water Manag. 190, 55–64 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Koubouris, G.C., Tzortzakis, N., Kourgialas, N., Darioti, M., Metzidakis, I.T.: Growth, photosynthesis and pollen performance in saline water treated olive (Olea europaea L.) plants under high temperature. Int. J. Plant Biol. 6, 28–32 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    IOC.: International Olive Council, Olivae. No: 124 (2017)

  4. 4.

    Bargougui, L., Guergueb, Z., Chaieb, M., Braham, M., Mekki, A.: Agro-physiological and biochemical responses of Sorghum bicolor in soil amended by olive mill wastewater. Agric. Water Manag. 212, 60–67 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Meftah, O., Guergueb, Z., Braham, M., Sayadi, S., Mekki, A.: Long term effects of olive mill wastewaters application on soil properties and phenolic compounds migration under arid climate. Agric Water Manag. 212, 119–125 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ayoub, S., Al-Absi, K., Al-Shdiefat, S., Al-Majali, D., Hijazean, D.: Effect of olive mill wastewater land-spreading on soil properties, olive tree performance andoil quality. Sci. Hortic. 175, 160–166 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Rusan Munir, J.M., Albalasmeh Ammar, A., Malkawi Hanan, I.: Treated olive mill wastewater effects on soil properties and plant growth. Water Air Soil Pollut. 227, 135–143 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Al-Imoor, H., Raed, I., Husam, H.Z., Oday, Z., Motasem, Z.: Germination of seeds grown on medium from olive mill liquid waste, olive mill pomace, and stone sludge waste. Chem. Mater. Res. 9, 10 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Barbera, A.C., Maucieri, C., Ioppolo, C., Milani, A., Cavallaro, V.: Effects of olive mill wastewater physicochemical treatments on polyphenol abatement and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) germinability. Water Res. 52, 275–281 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Buchmann, C., Felten, A., Peikert, B., Munoz, K., Bandow, N., Dag, A., Schaumann, G.E.: Development of phtotoxicity and composition of soil treated with olive mill wastewater (OMW): an incubation study. Plant Soil 386, 99–112 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Peri, C., Proietti, P.: Olive mill waste and by-products. In: Peri, C. (ed.) The Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Handbook, pp. 283–302. Wiley, Chichester (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Chaari, L., Elloumi, N., Mmseddi, S., Gargougri, K., Benrouina, B., Mechichi, T., Kallel, M.: Changes in soil macronutrients after a long-term application of olive mill wastewater. J. Agric. Chem. Environ. 4, 1–13 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Magdich, S., Abid, W., Boukhris, M., Ben Rouina, B., Ammar, E.: Effects of longterm olive mill wastewater spreading on the physiological and biochemical responses of adult Chemlali olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Ecol. Eng. 97, 122–129 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Roig, A., Cayuela, M.L., Sánchez-Monedero, M.A.: An overview on olive mill wastes and their valorisation methods. Waste Manag. 26, 960–969 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Khoufi, S., Feki, F., Sayadi, S.: Detoxification of olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation and sedimentation processes. J. Hazard. Mater. 142, 58–67 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kappekalis, I.E., Tsagarakis, K.P., Crowth, J.C.: Olive oil history, production by product management. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 7, 1–26 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Mekki, A., Dhouib, A., Feki, F., Sayadi, S.: Review: effects of olive mill wastewater application on soil properties and plants growth. Int. J. Recycl. Org. Waste Agric. 2, 15 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Mekki, A., Aloui, A., Guergueb, Z., Braham, M.: Agronomic valorization of olive mill wasteswaters: effects on medicago sativa growth and soil characteristics. CLEAN-Soil Air Water 46, 9 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Hachicha, S., Chtourou, M., Medhioub, K., Ammar, E.: Compost of poultry manure and olive mill wastes as an alternative fertilizer. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 26, 135–142 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Mekki, A., Arous, F., Aloui, F., Sayadi, S.: Treatment and valorization of agro-wastes as biofertilizers. Waste Biomass Valor. 8, 1877–2641 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Bustamante, M.A., Restrepo, A.P., Alburquerque, J.A., Bernal, M.P., Murcia, P., Paredes, C., Moral, R.: Recycling of anaerobic digestates by composting: effects of the bulking agent used. J. Cleaner Prod. 47, 61–69 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Dennehy, C., Lawlor, P.G., Jiang, Y., Gardiner, G.E., Xie, S., Nghiem, L.D., Zhan, X.: Greenhouse gas emissions from different pig manure management techniques: a critical analysis. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 11, 11–16 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Nicholson, F.A., Chambers, B.J., Smith, K.A.: Nutrient composition of poultry manures in England and Wales. Bioresour. Technol. 58, 279–284 (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Wong, J.W.C., Ma, K., Fang, K.M., Cheung, C.: Utilization of manure compost for organic farming in Hong Kong. Bioresour. Technol. 67, 43–46 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    GDAP.: General Directorate of Agricultural Production, Tunisia. Statistics (2015)

  26. 26.

    Dhyani, V., Awasthib, M.K., Wang, Q., Kumara, J., Ren, X., Zhao, J., Chen, H., Wang, M., Bhaskara, T.H., Zhang, Z.: Effect of composting on the thermal decomposition behavior and kinetic parameters of pig manure-derived solid waste. Bioresour. Technol. 252, 59–65 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Colon, J., Ponsá, S., Álvarez, C., Vinot, M., Lafuente, F., Gabriel, D., Sánchez, A.: Analysis of MSW full scale facilities based on anaerobic digestion and/or composting using respiration indices as performance indicators. Bioresour. Technol. 236, 87–96 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Sánchez- Garcia, M., Alburquerque, J.A., Sánchez-Monedero, M.A., Roig, A., Cayuela, M.L.: Biochar accelerates organic matter degradation and enhances N mineralization during composting of poultry manure without a relevant impact on gas emissions. Bioresour. Technol. 192, 272–279 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Bernal, M.P., Alburquerque, J.A., Moral, R.: Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria of compost maturity assessment. Bioresour. Technol. 100, 544–553 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Sadef, Y., Bester, K., Poulsen, T.: Modeling organic micro pollutant degradation kinetics during sewage sludge composting. Waste Manage 34, 11 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Vázquez, M.A., Soto, M.: The efficiency of home composting programs and compost quality. Waste Manage. 64, 39–50 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Sullivan, D.M., Bary, A.I., Miller, R.O., Brewer, L.J.: Interpreting compost analyses. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Soils Across latitudes. San Diego, California (2018)

  33. 33.

    Aranda, V., Macci, C., Peruzzi, E., Masciandaro, G.: Biochemical activity and chemical-structural properties of soil organic matter after 17 years of amendments with olive-mill pomace co-compost. J. Environ. Manage. 147, 278–285 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Gargouri, K., Masmoudi, M., Rhouma, A.: Influence of olive mill wastewater (OMW) spread on carbon and nitrogen dynamics and biology of an arid sandy soil. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 45, 1–14 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    García-Ruiz, R., Ochoa, M.V., Hinojosa, M.B., Gomez, B.: Improved soil quality after 16 years of olive mill pomace application in olive oil groves. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 32, 803–810 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Sánchez, M., González, J.L., Díez, M.A., Guimarães, A.C., Navas, L.M.: Treatment of animal carcasses in poultry farms using sealed ditches. Bioresour. Technol. 99, 7369–7376 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Lozano-García, B., Parras, L.: Short-term effects of olive mill byproducts on soil organic carbon, total N, C:N ratio and stratification ratios in a Mediterranean olive grove. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 165, 68–73 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Gomez, B., Hatch, D.J., Bol, R., García-Ruiz, R.: Agrochemical characterization, net N mineralization, and potential N leaching of composted olive mill pomace currently produced in southern Spain. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 176, 655–664 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Wafi, T., Ben Othman, A., Besbes, M.: Qualitative and quantitative characterization of municipal solid waste and the unexploited potential of green energy in Tunisia. Bioresour. Bioprocess. 6, 39 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Zhang, L., Sun, X.: Improving green waste composting by addition of sugarcane bagasse and exhausted grape marc. Bioresour. Technol. 218, 335–343 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Sierra, J., Marti, E., Garau, M.A., Cruanas, R.: Effects of the agronomic use of olive oil mill wastewater: field experiment. Sci. Tot. Environ. 378, 90–94 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Majbar, Z., Rais, Z., El Haji, M., Ben Abbou, M., Bouka, H., Nawdali, M.: Olive mill wastewater and wine by-products valorization by co-composting. JMES 8(9), 3162–3167 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Kandeler, E.: Total nitrogen. In: Shinner, F., Ohlinger, R., Kandeler, E., Margesin, R. (eds.) Methods in Soil Biology, pp. 406–408. Springer, Berlin (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Olsen, S.R., Sommers, L.E.: Phosphorus. In A.L. Page et al., (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy 9, 403–430 (1982)

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Ohlinger, R.: Soil respiration by titration. In: Schinner, F., Kandeler, E., Ohlinger, R., Margesin, R. (eds.) Methods in Soil Biology, pp. 95–98. Springer, Berlin (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Box, J.D.: Investigation of the Folin-Ciocalteau phenol reagent for the determination of polyphenolic substances in natural waters. Water Res. 17, 511–522 (1983)

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Mekki, A., Dhouib, A., Sayadi, S.: Changes in microbial and soil properties following amendment with treated and untreated olive mill wastewater. Microbiol. Res. 161, 93–101 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Mekki, A., Aloui, F., Dhouib, A., Sayadi, S.: Effects of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on biologic activity of soil amended with olive mill wastewaters. J. Soil Sci. Environ. Manag. 3, 1–8 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Zucconi, F., Forte, M., Monaco, M., De Bertoldi, M.: Biological evaluation of compost maturity. Biocycle 22, 27–29 (1981)

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Belaqziz, M., El-Abbassi, A., Lakhal, E., Agrafioti, E., Galanakis, C.: Agronomic application of olive mill wastewater: effects on maize production and soil properties. J. Environ. Manag. 171, 158–165 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Sellami, F., Hachicha, S., Chtourou, M., Medhioub, K., Ammar, E.: Maturity assessment of composted olive mill wastes using UV spectra and humification parameters. Bioresour. Technol. 99, 690–706 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Komilis, D., Kletsas, C.: Static respiration indices to investigate compost stability: effect of sample weight and temperature and comparison with dynamic respiration indices. Bioresour. Technol. 121, 467–470 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Sellami, F., Jarboui, R., Hachicha, S., Medhioub, K., Ammar, E.: Co-composting of oil exhausted olive-cake, poultry manure and industrial residues of agro-food activity for soil amendment. Bioresour. Technol. 99(5), 1177–1188 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Rigane, H.: Valorization of organic discharges through the composting process for soil amendment: agronomic and environmental interests. Sci. Compost. 33, 12–57 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Kopeć, M., Gonde, K., Mierzwa-Hersztek, M., Zaleski, T.: Effect of the composting process on physical and energetic changes in compost. Acta Agrophys. 23, 607–619 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Katheem, S., Kiyasudeen, M.H., Ibrahim, S., Quaik, S., Ismail, A.: Prospects of Organic Waste Management and the Significance of Earthworms. Springer, Berlin (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Li, Z., Lu, H., Ren, L., He, L.: Experimental and modeling approaches for food waste composting: a review. Chemosphere 93, 1247–1257 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Yuan, J., Chadwick, D., Zhang, D., Li, G., Chen, S., Luo, W., Du, L., He, S., Peng, S.: Effects of aeration rate on maturity and gaseous emissions during sewage sludge composting. Waste Manag. 56, 403–410 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Soudi, B.: Composting of household waste and valorisation of compost: the case of small and medium towns in Morocco. Actes, 104 (2001)

  60. 60.

    Osada, T., Sommer, S.G., Dahl, P., Rom, H.B.: Gaseous emission and changes in nutrient composition during deep litter composting. Soil Plant Sci. 51, 137–142 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Karolina, M., Mária, K.: Influence of compost covers on the efficiency of biowaste composting process. Waste Manag. 30, 2469–2474 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Jusoh, M.L., AdbelManaf, L., Abdullatiff, P.: Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality. Environ. Health Sci. Eng. 10, 17 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Sundberg, C., Jonsson, H.: Higher pH and faster decomposition in biowaste composting by increased aeration. Waste Manag. 28, 518–526 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Abid, N., Sayadi, S.: Detrimental effects of olive mill wastewater on the composting process of agricultural wastes. Waste Manag. 26, 1099–1107 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Fogarty, A.M., Tuovinen, O.H.: Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting. Micobiol Rev. 55, 225–233 (1991)

    Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Smars, S., Gustafsson, L., Beck-Friis, B., Jonsson, H.: Improvement of the composting time for household waste during an initial pH phase by mesophilic temperature control. Bioresour. Technol. 84, 237–241 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Paredes, C., Cegarra, J., Bernal, M.P., Roig, A.: Influence of olive mill wastewater in composting and impact of the compost on a Swiss chard crop and soil properties. Environ Int. 31, 305–312 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Chaari, L., Elloumi, N., Mmseddi, S., Gargougri, K., Benrouina, B., Mechichi, T., Kallel, M.: Effects of olive mill wastewater on soil nutrients availability. Int. J. Interdiscip. Multidiscip. Stud. 2, 175–183 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Francou, C.: Stabilization of organic matter during composting of urban waste: Influence of the nature of the waste and the composting process, Search for relevant indicators. 18, (2003)

  70. 70.

    Ieshita, P., Dam, B., Sen, S.K.: Composting of common organic wastes using microbial inoculants. 3Biotech 2, 127–134 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Cerda, A., Artola, A., Font, X., Barrena, R., Gea, T., Antoni Sánchez, A.: Composting of food wastes: status and challenges. Bioresour. Technol. 248, 57–67 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Chroni, C., Kyriacou, A., Manio, T., Lasaridi, K.-E.: Investigation of the microbial community structure and activity as indicators of compost stability and composting process evolution. Bioresour. Technol. 100, 3745–3750 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Adani, F., Ubbiali, P., Genevini, P.: The determination of biological stability of composts using the dynamic respiration index: the results of experience after 2 years. Waste Manag. 26, 41–48 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Aparna, P., Shanthi Priya, M., Mohan Reddy, D., Latha, P.: Estimation of genetic parameters in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for yield and it’s contributing characters under inorganic fertilizer managements. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 7, 1559–1565 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Compaoré, E., Nanéma, L.S.: Composting and compost quality of solid urban waste in the city of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Tropicultura 28, 232–237 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Pathak, A.K., Singh, M., Kumar, V.: Composting of municipal solid waste: a sustainable waste management technique in Indian cities—a review. Int. J. Curr. Res. 3, 246–339 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Wang, X., Pan, S., Zhang, Z., Lin, X., Zhang, Y., Chen, S.: Effects of the feeding ratio of food waste on fed-batch aerobic composting and its microbial community. Bioresour. Technol. 224, 397–404 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Antil, R.S., Raj, D., Inubushi, K.: Physical, chemical and biological parameters for compost maturity assessment: a review. Compost. Sustain. Agric. 83, 101 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Temgoua, E., Ngnikam, E., Dameni, H., Kameni, G.S.: Valorization of garbage by composting in the city of Dschang, Cameroun. Tropicultura 32, 28–36 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was carried out in the Olive Tree Institute of Sfax, Tunisia. The services of the Direction of the Institute and the staff of the experimental station are gratefully acknowledged. The authors acknowledge Dr. Kamel Maaloul from the Faculty of Science of Sfax, Tunisia for his assistance in English language review.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ali Mekki.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bargougui, L., Guergueb, Z., Chaieb, M. et al. Co-composting of Olive Industry Wastes with Poultry Manure and Evaluation of the Obtained Compost Maturity. Waste Biomass Valor 11, 6235–6247 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-019-00901-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Co-composting
  • Olive industry wastes
  • Poultry manure
  • Compost
  • Bio-fertilizer