Biodiesel from water hyacinth has shown to have poor oxidative stability due to the presence of significant amounts of unsaturated fatty acids. Most studies have been using synthetic antioxidants to improve oxidation stability of biodiesel but they are expensive and proved to be toxic at higher concentrations. This study assessed the possibility of using natural antioxidants extracted from clove wastes and babul tree barks since they are cheap, easy to extract and locally available and blends of these with synthetic antioxidant such as 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (Pyrogallol, PY) in improving the oxidation stability of biodiesel. Non-edible water hyacinth collected from Lake Victoria Tanzania was used as feedstock for biodiesel production. The biodiesel was analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition. Most of the physicochemical properties were within the acceptable limits for ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 except for oxidation stability which recorded 2.4 h and was below limits. Fatty acid analysis showed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids at 42% which contributed to the poor oxidation stability of the biodiesel. Clove waste and babul barks displayed significant total phenolic contents of 220.0 ± 0.1 and 48.0 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g, respectively. Clove antioxidant displayed an improvement of 153% in oxidation stability at 1000 ppm while babul improved by 236% at 800 ppm. Blends of clove with PY displayed much higher improvements in oxidation stability by 398% at 800 ppm while babul with pyrogallol showed a general decrease in performance by 46%.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Güereña, D., Neufeldt, H., Berazneva, J., Duby, S.: Water hyacinth control in Lake Victoria: transforming an ecological catastrophe into economic, social, and environmental benefits. Sustain. Prod. 3, 59–69 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spc.2015.06.003
Rezania, S., Ponraj, M., Din, M.F.M., Songip, A.R., Sairan, F.M., Chelliapan, S.: The diverse applications of water hyacinth with main focus on sustainable energy and production for new era: an overview. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 41, 943–954 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.09.006
Bhattacharya, A., Kumar, P.: Water hyacinth as a potential biofuel crop. Electron. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem. 9(1), 112–122 (2010)
Poddar, K., Mandal, L., Banerjee, G.: Studies on water hyacinth(Eichhornia crassipes)- chemical composition of the plant and water from different habitats. Indian Vet. J. 68(9), 833–837 (1991)
Gunnarsson, C.C., Petersen, C.M.: Water hyacinths as a resource in agriculture and energy production: a literature review. Waste Manag. 27(1), 117–129 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2005.12.011
Shanab, S.M., Hanafy, E.A., Shalaby, E.A.: Water hyacinth as non-edible source for biofuel production. Waste Biomass Valoriz. 9(2), 255–264 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-016-9816-6
Tang, H., Wang, A., Salley, S.O., Ng, K.S.: The effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of biodiesel. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85(4), 373–382 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-008-1208-z
Taghvaei, M., Jafari, S.M.: Application and stability of natural antioxidants in edible oils in order to substitute synthetic additives. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52(3), 1272–1282 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1080-1
Bouaid, A., Martinez, M., Aracil, J.: Production of biodiesel from bioethanol and Brassica carinata oil: oxidation stability study. Bioresour. Technol. 100(7), 2234–2239 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.10.045
Pullen, J., Saeed, K.: An overview of biodiesel oxidation stability. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 16(8), 5924–5950 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.06.024
Kivevele, T., Huan, Z.: Review of the stability of biodiesel produced from less common vegetable oils of African origin. S. Afr. J. Sci. 111(9–10), 01–07 (2015). https://doi.org/10.17159/SAJS.2015/20140434
Varatharajan, K., Pushparani, D.: Screening of antioxidant additives for biodiesel fuels. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 82, 2017–2028 (2018)
Jain, S., Sharma, M.: Stability of biodiesel and its blends: a review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.14(2), 667–678 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.10.011
Brown, W., Johnson, A., O'Halloran, M.: The effect of the level of dietary fat on the toxicity of phenolic antioxidants. Aust. J. Exper. Biol. Med. Sci. 37(6), 533–547 (1959). https://doi.org/10.1038/icb.1959.56
Johnson, A., Hewgill, F.: The effect of the antioxidants, butylated hydroxy anisole, butylated hydroxy toluene and propyl gallate on growth, liver and serum lipids and serum sodium levels of the rat. Aust. J. Exper. Biol. Med. Sci. 39(4), 353–360 (1961). https://doi.org/10.1038/icb.1961.34
Feuer, G., Gaunt, I., Golberg, L., Fairweather, F.: Liver response tests. VI. Application to a comparative study of food antioxidants and hepatotoxic agents. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 3, 457–469 (1965). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0015-6264(65)80132-8.
Cha, Y.N., Bueding, E.: Effect of 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole administration on the activities of several hepatic microsomal and cytoplasmic enzymes in mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 28(12), 1917–1921 (1979). https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(79)90645-2
Hansen, E.V., Meyer, O., Olsen, P.: Study on toxicity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in pregnant gilts and their foetuses. Toxicology 23(1), 79–83 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-483X(82)90043-9
Milner, S.M.: Effects of the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene on monolayer cultures of primate cells. Nature 216(5115), 557 (1967). https://doi.org/10.1038/216557a0
Metcalfe, S.M.: Cell culture as a test system for toxicity. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 23(11), 817–823 (1971)
Sciorra, L., Kaufmann, B., Maier, R.: The effects of butylated hydroxytoluene on the cell cycle and chromosome morphology of phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated leucocyte cultures. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 12(1), 33–44 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1016/0015-6264(74)90320-4
Bruce, W.R., Heddle, J.A.: The mutagenic activity of 61 agents as determined by the micronucleus, Salmonella, and sperm abnormality assays. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 21(3), 319–333 (1979). https://doi.org/10.1139/g79-036
Degré, R., Saheb, S.A.: Butylated hydroxyanisole as a possible mutagenic agent. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 14(3), 183–186 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1982.tb08659.x
Wilson, R., DeEds, F.: Feedstuffs antioxidants, toxicity studies on the antioxidant 6-ethoxy-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline. J. Agric. Food Chem. 7(3), 203–206 (1959). https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60097a008
De Sousa, L.S., De Moura, C.V.R., De Oliveira, J.E., De Moura, E.M.: Use of natural antioxidants in soybean biodiesel. Fuel 134, 420–428 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.06.007
Cortés-Rojas, D.F., de Souza, C.R., Oliveira, W.P.: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 4(2), 90–96 (2014)
Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Stoilova, I., Stoyanova, A., Krastanov, A., Schmidt, E.: Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(17), 6303–6307 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1021/jf060608c
Brewer, M.: Natural antioxidants: sources, compounds, mechanisms of action, and potential applications. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 10(4), 221–247 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00156.x
Khabiruddin, M.: Compositional analysis and antioxidant activity of Acacia nilotica from two locations. Asian J. Chem. 29(4), 888–892 (2017)
Singh, B.N., Singh, B.R., Sarma, B., Singh, H.: Potential chemoprevention of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by polyphenolics from Acacia nilotica bark. Chem. Biol. Interact. 181(1), 20–28 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2009.05.007
Bligh, E.G., Dyer, W.J.: A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37(8), 911–917 (1959). https://doi.org/10.1139/y59-099
Lee, K.G., Shibamoto, T.: Antioxidant property of aroma extract isolated from clove buds [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry]. Food Chem. 74(4), 443–448 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00161-3.
Ismail, A., Marjan, Z.M., Foong, C.W.: Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content in selected vegetables. Food Chem. 87(4), 581–586 (2004)
Sultana, B., Anwar, F., Przybylski, R.: Antioxidant activity of phenolic components present in barks of Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam. trees. Food Chem. 104(3), 1106–1114 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.019.
Nabora, C.S., Kingondu, C.K., Kivevele, T.T.: Tamarindus Indica fruit shell ash: a low cost and effective catalyst for biodiesel production from Parinari curatellifolia seeds oil. SN Appl. Sci. 1(3), 253 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-0256-3
Arayana, G.L., Rao, K.S., Pantulu, A., Thyagarajan, G.J.A.B.: Composition of lipids in roots, stalks, leaves and flowers of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. Aquat. Bot. 20(3–4), 219–227 (1984).
Meira, M., Quintella, C.M., dos Santos Tanajura, A., Da Silva, H.R.G., Fernando, J.D.E.S., da Costa Neto, P.R., Pepe, I.M., Santos, M.A., Nascimento, L.L.: Determination of the oxidation stability of biodiesel and oils by spectrofluorimetry and multivariate calibration. Talanta 85(1), 430–434 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2011.04.002.
Sukenik, A., Yamaguchi, Y., Livne, A.: Alterations in lipid molecular species of the marine eustigma tophyte Nannochlorosis Sp. 1. J. Phycol. 29(5), 620–626 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.1993.00620.x.
Mashkor, I.: Evaluation of antioxidant activity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum). Int. J. Chem. Sci. 13, 23–30 (2015)
El-Maati, M.F.A., Mahgoub, S.A., Labib, S.M., Al-Gaby, A.M., Ramadan, M.F.: Phenolic extracts of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) with novel antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Eur. J. Integr. Med. 8(4), 494–504 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2016.02.006
Atta, E.M., Mohamed, N.H., Abdelgawad, A.A.: Antioxidants: an overview on the natural and synthetic types. Eur. Chem. Bull. 6(8), 365–375 (2017). https://doi.org/10.17628/ecb.2017.6.374-384
Nimse, S.B., Pal, D.: Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. RSC Adv. 5(35), 27986–28006 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA13315C
Spacino, K.R., da Silva, E.T., Angilelli, K.G., Moreira, I., Galão, O.F., Borsato, D.: Relative protection factor optimisation of natural antioxidants in biodiesel B100. Ind. Crops Prod. 80, 109–114 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.11.034
Gregório, A.P.H., Borsato, D., Moreira, I., Silva, E.T., Romagnoli, É.S., Spacino, K.R.: Apparent activation energy and relative protection factor of natural antioxidants in mixture with biodiesel. Biofuels 10(5), 607–614 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1080/17597269.2017.1332297
The authors acknowledge The World Academy of Science (TWAS) for funding this study under Grant Number 17–495 RG/CHE/AF/AC_G – FR3240297727.
Conflict of interest
We declare no conflict of interest in this work.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Waweru, E.J., Pogrebnaya, T. & Kivevele, T.T. Effect of Antioxidants Extracted from Clove Wastes and Babul Tree Barks on the Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel made from Water Hyacinth of Lake Victoria Origin. Waste Biomass Valor 11, 5749–5758 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-019-00871-y
- Oxidation stability
- Clove and babul barks