Proteins and Co-products from Seafood Processing Discards: Their Recovery, Functional Properties and Applications

Abstract

Commercial processing of seafood results in enormous amounts of solid discards, offal or by-products. These discards, on dry weight basis, contain up to 60% proteins, consisting mostly of myofibrillar proteins, collagen, enzymes, and also soluble nitrogenous compounds. In view of their nutritional and functional values, there is a need for recovery of these proteins from the discards, which will help better utilization of harvested and farmed seafood besides reducing seafood-associated environmental problems. Iso-electric pH solubilization precipitation is a plausible method for the recovery of proteins from fishery discards. The recovered proteins are comparable with conventional surimi in gel forming and other functional properties. Other approaches for protein recovery include mechanical deboning of fish frames, development of weak acid-induced gels, protein dispersions, and treatment of the discards by proteolytic enzymes. This article discusses recovery of proteins, enzymes, protein hydrolyzates and peptides from seafood processing discards, their nutritional, bioactive and functional properties, as well as their food and nutraceutical applications.

Graphic Abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

Adapted from Ref [27]

Abbreviations

ACE-1:

Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme

EAA:

Essential amino acid

ISP:

Isoelectric solubilization precipitation

FPI:

Fish protein isolate

FPH:

Fish protein hydrolyzate

KPC:

Krill protein concentrate

PDAAS:

Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score

PER:

Protein efficiency ratio

SWW:

Surimi wash water

References

  1. 1.

    OECD/FAO Agricultural Outlook 2019–2028, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.Ch.8, Fish and Fisheries, OECD Publishayashing, Paris (2019) https://doi.org/10.1787/agr_outlook-2019-en.

  2. 2.

    Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., van Otterdijk, R., Meybeck, A.: Global Food Losses and Food Waste: Extent Causes and Prevention. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Venugopal, V.: Seafood Processing: Adding Value Through Quick Freezing, Retortable Packaging, and Cook-Chilling. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Sachindra, N.M., Mahendrakar, N.S. (eds.): Fish Processing By-products: Quality Assessment And Applications. Stadium Press, Houston (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ghaly, A.E., Ramakrishnan, V.V., Brooks, M.S., Budge, S.N., Dave, D.: Fish processing discards as a potential source of proteins, amino acids and oils: a critical review. Microbiol. Biochem. Technol. 5, 107–129 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Nazzaro, F., Fratianni, F., Ombra, M.N., d’Acierno, A., Coppola, R.: Recovery of biomolecules of high benefit from food waste. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 22, 43–54 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Menon, V.V., Lele, S.S.: Nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds from seafood processing waste. In: Kim, S.K. (ed.) Springer Handbook of Marine Biotechnology, pp. 1405–1425. Springer, Berlin (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Nguyen, T.T., Barber, A.R., Corbin, K., Zhang, W.: Lobster processing by-products as valuable bioresource of marine functional ingredients, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Bioresour. Bioprocess. 4, 27–46 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Mo, W.Y., Man, Y.B., Wong, M.H.: Use of food waste, fish waste and food processing waste for China's aquaculture industry: needs and challenge. Sci. Total Environ. 613, 635–643 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Love, D.C., Fry, J.P., Milli, M.C., Neff, R.A.: Wasted seafood in the United States: quantifying loss from production to consumption and moving toward solutions. Glob. Environ. Change 35, 116–124 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Karadeniz, F., Kim, S.K.: Trends in the use of seafood processing by-products in Europe. In: Kim, S.K. (ed.) Seafood Processing By-Products, pp. 11–19. Springer, New York (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Islam, M.S., Khan, S., Tanaka, M.: Waste loading in shrimp and fish processing effluents. Potential source of hazards to the coastal and near-shore environments. Mar. Poll. Bull. 49, 104–110 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Esteban, M.B., Garcia, A.J., Ramos, P., Márquez, M.C.: Evaluation of fruit–vegetable and fish wastes as alternative feedstuffs in pig diets. Waste Manag. 27, 193–200 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ferraro, V., Cruz, I.B., Jorge, R.F., Malcata, F.X., Pintado, M.E., Castro, P.M.L.: Valorisation of natural extracts from marine source focused on marine by-products: a review. Food Res. Int. 43, 2221–2233 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Olsen, R.L., Toppe, J., Karunasagar, I.: Challenges and realistic opportunities in the use of by-products from processing of fish and shellfish. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 36, 144–151 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Venugopal, V.: Marine Products for Healthcare: Functional and Bioactive Nutraceutical Compounds from the Ocean. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Mao, X., Guo, N., Sun, J., Xue, C.: Comprehensive utilization of shrimp waste based on biotechnological methods: a review. J. Clean. Prod. 143, 814–823 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Vignesh, R., Badhul Haq, M.A., Devanathan, K., Srinivasan, M.: Pharmacological potential of fish extracts. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res. 3, 52–58 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Park, J.W. (ed.): Surimi and Surimi Seafood, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Mazorra-Manzano, M.A., Ramírez-Suárez, J.C., Moreno-Hernández, J.M., Pacheco-Aguilar, R.: Seafood proteins. In: Yada, R.Y. (ed.) Proteins in Food Processing, pp. 445–475. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Shaviklo, A.R.: Development of fish protein powder as an ingredient for food applications: a review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52, 648–666 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Freitas, A.C., Rodrigues, D., Rocha-Santos, T.A.P., Gomes, A.M.P., Duarte, A.C.: Marine biotechnology advances towards applications in new functional foods. Biotechnol. Adv. 30, 1506–1515 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Kim, S.K., Senevirathne, M.: Membrane bioreactor technology for the development of functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their potential health benefits. Membranes 1, 327–344 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Zhang, Y., He, S., Simpson, B.K.: Enzymes in food bio-processing — novel food enzymes, applications, and related techniques. Curr Opin. Food Sci. 19, 30–35 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Venugopal, V.: Enzymes from seafood processing waste and their applications in seafood processing. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 78, 47–69 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Hultin, H.O., Kristinsson, H.G., Lanier, T.C., Park, J.W.: Process for recovery of functional proteins by pH shifts. In: Park, J.W. (ed.) Surimi and Surimi Seafood, pp. 107–139. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Hultin, H.O.: Recent advances in surimi technology. In: Fingerman, M., Nagabhushanam, R. (eds.) Recent Advances in Marine Biotechnology: Vol.7: Seafood Safety and Human Health, pp. 241–251. Science Publ, Enfield (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Alvarez, C., Lelu, P., Lynch, S.A., Ttiwan, B.K.: Optimised protein recovery from mackerel whole fish by using sequential acid/alkaline isoelectric solubilization precipitation extraction assisted by ultrasound. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 88, 210–216 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Tan, Y., Gao, H., Chang, S.K.C., Bechtel, P.J., Bahamound, B.S.M.: Comparative studies on the yield and characteristics of myofibrillar proteins from catfish heads and frames extracted by two methods for making surimi-like protein gel products. Food Chem. 272, 133–140 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Kristinsson, H.G., Hultin, H.O.: Changes in conformation and subunit assembly of cod myosin at low and high pH and after subsequent refolding. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 7187–7196 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Yongsawatdigul, J., Park, J.W.: Effects of alkali and acid solubilization on gelation characteristics of rockfish muscle proteins. J. Food Sci. 69, 499–505 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Kim, Y.S., Park, J.W., Choi, Y.J.: New approaches for the effective recovery of fish proteins and their physicochemical characteristics. Fish. Sci. 69, 1231–1239 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Chen, Y.C., Jaczynski, J.: Protein recovery from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss processing byproducts via isoelectric solubilization/precipitation and its gelation properties as affected by functional additives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 9079–9088 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Kristinsson, H.G., Liang, Y.: Effect of pH-shift processing and surimi processing on Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulates muscle proteins. J. Food. Sci. 71, 304–312 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Davenport, M., Kristinsson, H.: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) muscle protein isolate performance processed under different acid and alkali pH values. J. Food Sci. 76, E240–E247 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Paker, I., Jaczynski, J., Matak, K.E.: Calcium hydroxide as a processing base in alkali-aided pH-shift protein recovery process. J. Sci. Food Agri. 97, 811–817 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Tian, Y., Wang, W., Yuan, C., et al.: Nutritional and digestive properties of protein isolates extracted from the muscle of the common carp using pH-shift processing. J. Food Proc. Preserv. 41, e12847 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Chomnawang, C., Yongsawatdigul, J.: Protein recovery of tilapia frame by-products by pH-shift method. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 22, 112–120 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Batista, I.: Recovery of proteins from fish waste products by alkaline extraction. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 210, 84–89 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Underland, I., Kelleher, S., Hultin, H.O.: Recovery of functional proteins from herring Clupea harengus light muscle by an acid or alkali solubilization process. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 731–7379 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Surasani, V.K.R., Kudre, T., Ballari, R.V.: Recovery and characterization of proteins from pangas (Pangasius pangasius) processing waste obtained through pH shift processing. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 25, 11987–11998 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Abdollahi, M., Underland, I.: Structural, functional, and sensorial properties of protein isolate produced from salmon, cod, and herring by-products. Food Bioprocess Technol. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-018-2138-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Panipat, W., Chaijan, M.: Functional properties of pH-shifted protein isolates from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus) head by-product. Int. J. Food Prop. 20, 596–610 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Chang, T., Wang, C., Yang, H., Xiong, S., Liu, Y., Liu, R.: Effects of the acid- and alkali-aided processes on bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) muscle proteins. Int. J. Food Prop. 19, 1863–1873 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Choi, Y.J., Jin, S.-K.: Recovery of fish proteins by pH shift processing. In: Kim, S.-K. (ed.) Seafood Science: Advances in Chemistry, pp. 117–131. CRC Press Boca Raton, Technology and Applications (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Hayes, M., Mora, L., Hussey, K., Aluko, R.: Boarfish protein recovery using the pH-shift process and generation of protein hydrolysates with ACE-I and antihypertensive bioactivities in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Inn. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 37, 253–270 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Taskaya, L., Chen, Y.C., Jaczynski, J.: Functional properties of proteins recovered from whole gutted silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 42, 1082–1089 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Yoon, I.S., Lee, H., Kang, S.I., Park, S.Y., Kang, Y.M., Kim, J.-S., Heu, M.S.: Food functionality of protein isolates extracted from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) roe using alkaline solubilization and acid precipitation process. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 7, 412–424 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Oliyaei, N., Ghorbani, M., Moosavi-Nasab, M., Sadeghimahoonak, A.R., Maghsoudloo, Y.: 2017) Effect of temperature and alkaline pH on the physicochemical properties of the protein isolates extracted from the whole ungutted lanternfish (Benthosema pterotum). J. Aquat. Food. Prod. Technol. 26(10), 1134–1143 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Kristinsson, H.G., Lanier, T.C., Halldordottir, S.M., Geirsdottir, M., Park, J.W.: Fish protein isolate by pH shift. In: Park, J.W. (ed.) Surimi and Surimi Seafood, 3rd edn, pp. 169–192. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Chen, Y.C., Tou, J.C., Jaczynski, J.: Amino acid and mineral composition of protein and other components and their recovery yields from whole Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation. J. Food Sci. 74, H31–H39 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Shavandi, A., Hu, Z., Teh, S., Zhao, G., Carne, A., Bekhit, A., Bekhit, A.E.: Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates obtained from squid pen chitosan extraction effluent. Food Chem. 227, 194–201 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Khiari, Z., Kelloway, S., Mason, B.: Turning invasive green crab Carcinus maenas into opportunity: recovery of chitin and protein isolate through isoelectric solubilization/precipitation. Waste Biomass Valor. 9, 1–10 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Vareltzis, P.K., Undeland, I.: Protein isolation from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) using an acid and alkaline solubilisation technique–process characteristics and functionality of the isolates. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92, 3055–3064 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Brown, T.M., Cerruto-Noya, C.A., Schrader, K.K., Kleinholz, C.W., Mireless-Dewitt, C.A.: Evaluation of a modified pH-shift process to reduce 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in spiked catfish and produce a consumer acceptable fried catfish nugget-like product. J. Food Sci 77, S377–S383 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Bourtoom, T., Chinnan, M.S., Jantawat, P., Sanguandeekul, R.: Recovery and characterization of proteins precipitated from surimi wash-water. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 42, 599–605 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Wibowo, S., Savant, V., Cherian, G., Savage, T.F., Velazquez, G., Torres, J.A.: A feeding study to assess nutritional quality and safety of surimi wash water proteins recovered by a chitosan-alginate complex. J. Food Sci. 72, S179–184 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Venugopal, V.: Functionality and potential applications of thermostable water dispersions of fish meat. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 8, 271–276 (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Venugopal, V., Doke, S.N., Nair, P.M.: Gelation of shark myofibrillar proteins by weak organic acids. Food Chem. 50, 185–190 (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Nurdiyana, H., Siti Mazlina, M.K.: Optimization of protein extraction from fish waste using response surface methodology. J. Appl. Sci. 9, 3121–3125 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Kim, S.K., Jeon, Y.J., Byeun, H.-G., Kim, Y.-T., Lee, C.-K.: Enzymatic recovery of cod frame proteins with crude proteinase from tuna pyloric caeca. Fish. Sci. 63, 421–427 (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Rai, A.K., Jini, R., Swapna, H.C., Sachindra, N.M., Bhaskar, N., Baskaran, V.: Application of native lactic acid bacteria (Lab) for fermentative recovery of lipids and proteins from fish processing wastes: bioactivities of fermentation products. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 20(1), 32–44 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Cahu, T.B., Santos, S.D., Mendes, A., Cordula, C.R.: Recovery of protein, chitin, carotenoids, glycosaminoglycans from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei processing discard. Proc. Biochem. 47, 570–577 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Pal, G.K., Suresh, P.V.: Sustainable valorisation of seafood by-products: Recovery of collagen and development of collagen-based novel functional food ingredients. Inn. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 37, 201–215 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Raman, M., Gopakumar, K.: Fish collagen and its applications in food and pharmaceutical industry: a review. EC Nutr. 13, 752–767 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Gómez-Guillén, M.C., Giménez, B., López-Caballero, M.E., Montero, M.P.: Functional and bioactive properties of collagen and gelatin from alternative sources: a review. Food Hydrocoll. 25, 1813–1827 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Blanco, M., Vázquez, J.A., Pérez-Martín, R.I., et al.: Hydrolysates of fish skin collagen: an opportunity for valorizing fish industry byproducts. Mar. Drugs 155, 131 (2017). https://doi.org/10.3390/md15050131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Abdollahi, M., Rezaei, M., Jafarpour, A., Underland, I.: Sequential extraction of gel-forming proteins, collagen and collagen hydrolysate from gutted silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), a bio-refinery approach. Food Chem. 242, 568–578 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Lin, L., Regenstein, J.M., Lv, S., Lu, J., Jiang, S.: An overview of gelatin derived from aquatic animals: properties and modification. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 68, 102–117 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Karim, A.A., Bhat, R.: Fish gelatin: properties, challenges, and prospects as an alternative to mammalian gelatins. Food Hydrocoll. 23, 563–576 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Muffler, K., Sana, B., Mukherjee, J., Ulber, R.: Marine enzymes—production and applications. In: Kim, S.K. (ed.) Springer Handbook of Marine Biotechnology, pp. 413–429. Springer, Berlin (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Haard, N.F.: Specialty enzymes from marine organisms. Food Technol. 52(7), 64–67 (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Murthy, L.N., Phadke, G.G., Unnikrishnan, P., Annamalai, J., Joshi, C.G., et al.: Valorization of fish viscera for crude proteases production and its use in bioactive protein hydrolysate preparation. Waste Biomass Valor. 10, 1735–1746 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Chalamaiah, M., Dinesh Kumar, B., Hemalatha, R., Jyothirmayi, J.: Fish protein hydrolyzates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications. Food Chem. 135, 3020–3038 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Bougatef, A.: Trypsins from fish processing discard: characteristics and biotechnological applications: comprehensive review. J. Clean. Prod. 57, 257–265 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Sánchez, A.I., Careche, M., Borderías, A.J.: Method for producing a functional protein concentrate from giant squid Dosidicus gigas muscle. Food Chem. 100, 48–54 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Bhaskar, N., Mahendrakar, N.S.: Protein hydrolysate from visceral waste proteins of catla (Catla catla): optimization of hydrolysis conditions for a commercial neutral protease. Biores. Technol. 99, 4105–4111 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Gajanan, P.G., Elavarasan, K., Shamasundar, B.A.: Bioactive and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from fish frame processing waste using plant proteases. Env Sci. Poll. Res. 23, 24901–24911 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Ketnawa, S., Martínez-Alvarez, O., Gómez-Estaca, J., Gómez-Guillén, M.C., Benjakul, S., Rawdkuen, S.: Obtaining of functional components from cooked shrimp Penaeus vannamei by enzymatic hydrolysis. Food Biosci. 15, 55–63 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Chai, T.-T., Law, Y.-C., Wong, F.-C., Kim, S.-K.: Enzyme-assisted recovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates: a review. Mar. Drugs 152, 42 (2017). https://doi.org/10.3390/md15020042

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Li-Chan, E.C.: Bioactive peptides and protein hydrolysates: research trends and challenges for application as nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 1, 28–37 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Udenigwe, U.V., Aluko, R.E.: Food protein-derived bioactive peptides: production, processing, and potential health benefits. J. Food Sci. 71, R11–R24 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Huang, Y., Ruan, G., Qin, Z., Li, H., Zheng, Y.: Antioxidant activity measurement and potential antioxidant peptides exploration from hydrolysates of novel continuous microwave-assisted enzymolysis of the Scomberomorus niphonius protein. Food Chem. 223, 89–95 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Baiti, R., Bougatef, A., Sila, A., Guillochon, D., Dhulster, P., Nedjar-Arroume, N.: Nine novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme ACE- inhibitory peptides from cuttlefish Sepia officinalis muscle protein hydrolysates and antihypertensive effect of the potent active peptide in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Chem. 170, 519–525 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Pan, X., Zhao, Y.-Q., Hu, F.-Y., Wang, H.B.: Preparation and identification of antioxidant peptides from protein hydrolysate of skate (Raja porosa) cartilage. J. Funct. Foods 25, 220–230 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Slizyte, R., Rommi, K., Mozuraityte, R., Eck, P., Five, K., Rustad, T.: Bioactivities of fish protein hydrolysates from defatted salmon backbones. Biotechnol. Rep. 11, 99–109 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Vijaykrishnaraj, M., Prabhasankar, P.: Marine protein hydrolyzates: their present and future perspectives in food chemistry—a review. RSC Adv. 5, 34864–34867 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Tokuşoğlu, O.: Seafood by-product based food powders: antioxidative and anticarcinogen bioactives. In: Tokuşoğlu, O. (ed.) Food By-Product Based Functional Food Powders, Chapter 5, p. 284. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Venugopal, V., Gopakumar, K.: Shellfish: nutritive value, health benefits, and consumer safety. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 16, 1219–1242 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Friedman, M.: Nutritional value of food proteins from different food resource. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 6–29 (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Venugopal, V.: Nutrients and nutraceuticals from seafood. In: Mérillon, J.M., Ramawat, K. (eds.) Bioactive Molecules in Food: Reference Series in Phytochemistry, pp. 1–45. Springer, Cham (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Weichselbaum, E., Coe, S., Buttriss, J., Stanner, S.: Fish in the diet: a review. Nutr. Bull. 38, 128–177 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Elmadfa, I., Meyer, A.L.: Animal proteins as important contributors to a healthy human diet. Ann. Rev. Anim. Biosci. 5, 111–131 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Coppes-Petricorena, Z.: Chemical composition of fish and fishery products. In: Cheung, P.C.K., Mehta, B.M. (eds.) Handbook of Food Chemistry, pp. 403–435. Springer, Berlin (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    He, S., Franco, C., Zhang, W.: Functions, applications and production of protein hydrolysates from fish processing co-products (FPCP). Food Res. Int. 50, 289–297 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Liaset, B., Espe, M.: Nutritional composition of soluble and insoluble fractions obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of fish-raw materials. Proc. Biochem. 43, 42–48 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Bechtel, P.J., Bland, J.M., Bett-Garber, K.L., Grim, G.C., Brashear, S.S., Lloyd, S.W., Watson, M.A., Lea, J.M.: Chemical and nutritional properties of channel and hybrid catfish byproducts. Food Sci. Nutr. 5, 981–988 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Wasswa, J., Tang, J., Gu, X.H., Yuan, X.Q.: Influence of the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis on the functional properties of protein hydrolysate from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella skin. Food Chem. 1044, 1698–1704 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Silva, J.F.X., Ribeiro, K., Silva, J.F., Cahu, R.S., Bezerra, R.S.: Utilization of tilapia processing waste for the production of fish protein hydrolysate. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 196, 96–109 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Herpandi, N.H., Rosma, A., Wan Nadiah, W.A.: The tuna fishing industry: a new outlook on fish protein hydrolyzates. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf 10, 195–207 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Hamed, I., Özogul, F., Özogul, Y., Regenstein, J.M.: Marine bioactive compounds and their health benefits: a review. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 14, 446–465 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Venugopal, V.: Weak acid-induced gel from shark meat and its food applications. EC Nutr. 10, 87–101 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Mendez, A., Schultz, M., Muschiolik, G., Proll, J., Schmandke, H.: Production, characterization and application of protein isolates from shark: Part 3: Characterization of protein isolates. Nahrung 26, 533–540 (1982)

    Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Tan, X., Qi, L., Fan, F., Guo, Z., Wang, Z., Song, W., Du, M.: Analysis of volatile compounds and nutritional properties of enzymatic hydrolysate of protein from cod bone. Food Chem. 264, 350–357 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Jensen, I.J., Maehre, H.K.: Preclinical and clinical studies on antioxidative, antihypertensive and cardioprotective effect of marine proteins and peptides—a review. Mar. Drugs 14, 211–224 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Dort, J., Sirois, A., Leblanc, N., Côté, C.H., Jacques, H.: Beneficial effects of cod protein on skeletal muscle repair following injury. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 37, 489–498 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Wergedah, H., Liaset, B., Gudbrandsen, O.A., et al.: Fish protein hydrolysate reduces plasma cholesterol, increases the proportion of HDL-cholesterol and lowers acyl-coA-cholesterol acyltransferase activity in liver of zucker rats. Physiol. Genomics 40, 189–194 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Rudkowska, I., Marcotte, B., Pilon, G., Lavigne, C., Marette, A., Vohl, M.C.: Fish nutrients decrease expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in cultured human macrophages. Physiol. Genomics. 40, 189–194 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Tahergorabi, R., Matak, K.E., Jaczynski, J.E.: Fish protein isolate: development of functional foods with nutraceutical ingredients. J. Funct. Foods 18, 746–755 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Tahergorabi, R., Beamer, S.K., Matak, K.E., Jaczynski, J.: Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation as a means to recover protein isolates from striped bass Morone saxatilis: its physicochemical properties in a nutraceutical seafood product. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60, 5979–5987 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Tahergorabi, R., Hosseini, S.V., Jaczynski, J.: Seafood proteins. In: Williams, P.A., Phillips, G. (eds.) Handbook of Food Proteins, pp. 116–149. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    Clemente, A.: Enzymatic protein hydrolysates in human nutrition. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 11, 254–262 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Morales-Medina, R., Tamm, F., Guadix, A.M., Guadix, E.M., Drusch, S.: Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine S. pilchardus and horse mackerel T. mediterraneus for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying. Food Chem. 194, 1208–1216 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Wang, Y.K., He, H.L., Wang, G.F., Wu, H., Zhou, B.C., Chen, X.L., Zhang, Y.Z.: Oyster Crassostrea gigas hydrolysates produced on a plant scale have antitumor activity and immune-stimulating effects in BALB/c mice. Mar Drugs 82, 255–268 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Khora, S.S.: Marine fish-derived bioactive peptides and proteins for human therapeutics. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 5, 31–37 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Halim, N.R.A., Yusof, H.M., Sarbon, N.M.: Functional and bioactive properties of fish protein hydolysates and peptides: a comprehensive review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 51, 24–33 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Mitchell, J.R.: Water and food macromolecules. In: Hill, S.E., Ledward, D.A., Mitchell, J.R. (eds.) Functional Properties of Food Macromolecules, pp. 50–65. Aspen Publ, Silver Spring (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Kakatkar, A., Venugopal, V., Sharma, A.K.: Hydration of muscle proteins of Bombay duck Harpodon nehereus during acetic acid-induced gelation and characteristics of the gel dispersion. Food Chem. 83, 99–106 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Tahergorabi, R., Beamer, S.K., Matak, K.E., Jaczynski, J.: Functional food products made from fish protein isolate recovered with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 48, 89–95 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Kobayashi, Y., Park, J.: W: Optimal blending of differently refined fish proteins based on their functional properties. J. Food Proc. Preserv. 42, e13346 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Gao, Z., Fang, Y., Cao, Y., Liao, H., Nishinari, K., Phillips, G.O.: Hydrocolloid-food component interactions. Food Hydrocoll. 68, 149–155 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Wang, Y., Wang, R., Chang, Y., Gao, Y., Li, Z., Xue, C.: Preparation and thermo-reversible gelling properties of protein isolate from defatted Antarctic krill Euphausia superba byproducts. Food Chem. 188, 170–176 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Ozturk, B., McClements, D.J.: Progress in natural emulsifiers for utilization in food emulsions. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 7, 1–6 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Yin, H., Wan, Y., Pu, J., Bechtel, P.J., Sathivel, S.: Functional and rheological properties of protein fractions of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and their effects in an emulsion system. J. Food Sci. 76, E283–E290 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J.: Properties of soluble protein powders from pollock. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 41, 520–529 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    Venugopal, V., Shahidi, F., Lee, T.C.: Value-added products from underutilized fish species. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 35, 431–453 (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    Harrison, R.W., Stringer, T., Prinyawiwatkul, W.: Evaluating consumer preferences for aquacultural products: an application to the U.S. crawfish industry. Aquacult. Econ. Manag. 5, 337–349 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Wijaya, W., Patel, A.R., Setiowati, A.R., der Meeren, P.V.: Functional colloids from proteins and polysaccharides for food applications. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 68, 56–69 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Pires, C., Batista, I., Fradinho, P., Costa, S.: Utilization of alkaline-recovered proteins from cape hake by-products in the preparation of frankfurter-type fish sausages. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 18, 170–190 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Kadam, S.U., Prabhasankar, P.: Marine foods as functional ingredients in bakery and pasta products. Food Res. Int. 43, 1975–1980 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Vijaykrishnaraj, M., Roopa, B.S., Prabhashankar, P.: Preparation of gluten free bread enriched with green mussel (Perna canaliculus) protein hydrolysates and characterization of peptides responsible for mussel flavor. Food Chem. 211, 715–725 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Supawong, S., Park, J.W., Thawornchinsombut, S.: Fat blocking roles of fish proteins in fried fish cake. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 97, 462–468 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    He, X., Cebe, P., Weiss, A.S., Omenetto, P., Kaplan, D.L.: Protein-based composite materials. Mater. Today 15, 208–215 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    Venugopal, V., Doke, S.N., Kakatkar, A., Alur, M.D., Bongirwar, D.R.: Restructured shelf stable steaks from shark meat gel. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 35, 185–189 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  135. 135.

    Etxabide, A., Uranga, J., Guerrero, P., de la Caba, K.: Development of active gelatin films by means of valorisation of food processing waste: a review. Food Hydrocoll. 68, 192–198 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  136. 136.

    Venugopal, V.: Cosmeceucals from marine fish and shellfish. In: Kim, S.K. (ed.) Marine Cosmseceuticals Trends and Prospects, pp. 211–232. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  137. 137.

    da Silva, C.P., Bezerra, R.S., dos Santos, A.C.O., de Castro, C.R.O.B., Messias, J.B., et al.: Biological value of shrimp protein hydrolysate by-product produced by autolysis. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 80, 456–461 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  138. 138.

    Gildberg, A., Steinberg, E.: A new process for advanced utilisation of shrimp waste. Proc. Biochem. 36, 809–812 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  139. 139.

    Najafian, L., Babji, A.S.: A review of fish-derived antioxidant and antimicrobial peptides: their production, assessment, and applications. Peptides 33, 178–185 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  140. 140.

    Bello, A.E., Oesser, S.: Collagen hydrolyzate for the treatment of osteo-arthritis and other joint disorders: a review of the literature. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 22, 2221–2232 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  141. 141.

    Olatunde, O.O., Benjakul, S.: Natural preservatives for extending the shelf-life of seafood: a revisit. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 17, 1595–1612 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  142. 142.

    Egerton, S., Culloty, S., Whooley, J., Stanton, S., Paul, R.: Characterization of protein hydrolysates from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and their application in beverage fortification. Food Chem. 245, 698–706 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  143. 143.

    Nuanmano, S., Prodpran, T., Benjakul, S.: Potential use of gelatin hydrolysate as plasticizer in fish myofibrillar protein film. Food Hydrocoll. 47, 61–68 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  144. 144.

    Villami, O., Váquiro, H., Solanilla, J.F.: Fish viscera protein hydrolysates: production, potential applications and functional and bioactive properties. Food Chem. 224, 160–167 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  145. 145.

    Kuraishi, K., Yamazaki, K., Susa, Y.: Transglutaminase: its utilization in the food industry. Food Res. Int. 17, 221–246 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  146. 146.

    Kittikun, H.A., Bourneow, C., Benjakul, S.: Hydrolysis of surimi wastewater for production of transglutaminase by Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112. Food Chem. 135, 1183–1191 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. Maya Raman for reading the manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vazhiyil Venugopal.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Vazhiyil Venugopal—Adjunct Professor

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sasidharan, A., Venugopal, V. Proteins and Co-products from Seafood Processing Discards: Their Recovery, Functional Properties and Applications. Waste Biomass Valor 11, 5647–5663 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-019-00812-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Seafood discards
  • Isoelectric solubilization precipitation
  • Fish protein isolates
  • Protein hydrolyzates
  • Protein dispersions
  • Peptides
  • Food applications