Valorization of Grapefruit Seeds: Cold Press Oil Production
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The aims of this study were valorization of grapefruit seeds by producing oil with cold press technique and characterization of the obtained oils.
Control group and enzyme treated seeds were cold pressed in laboratory scale machine, and common physicochemical properties, fatty acid, sterol, tocopherol, flavonoid, phenolic acid, pigment, volatile aromatics compositions of the oils were determined in addition to their sensory descriptive analyses.
It was shown that the oil contains linoleic acid (40%), β-sitosterol (80%) and α-tocopherol (220–320 mg/kg oil) as the major components. Naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, rutin as prominent flavonoids; tr-ferulic and gallic acids as dominant phenolic acids were quantified. Furthermore 26 different (d-limonene, furfural, 3-methylbutanal etc.) volatile aromatics were determined. The oils are shown to be bioactives and aromatics rich samples, but they have strong bitter and astringent taste.
Hence, the oil could only be used to enrich other edible oils and foods for functional purposes, and could be utilised for cosmetic, chemical, energy and other purposes.
KeywordsGrapefruit seed Enzyme treatment Cold pressing Bioactives Aromatics
This study was funded by the TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey), Project No: COST 114O876. The authors thank for the fund. We would like to thank also Frigo-Pak Food Co. (Bursa, Turkey) for supplying the grapefruit seeds used in the study.
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