Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 9, Issue 5, pp 801–810 | Cite as

Dark Fermentative Hydrogen Gas Production from Lime Treated Waste Paper Towel Hydrolysate

  • Hidayet Argun
  • Gülizar Onaran
Original Paper


This study presents dark fermentative hydrogen gas production from acid hydrolysed waste paper towel hydrolysate. Firstly, Box-Behnken statistical experiment design was used to investigate glucose production from waste paper towel by acid hydrolysis. S/L ratio, hydrolysis time and pH were chosen as independent variables while glucose concentration in the hydrolysate was the objective function. Highest glucose concentration of 32.17 g/L was obtained at S/L ratio of 100 g/L, pH 0 (gauge pH) and 180 min hydrolysis time. All variables were found to have significant effect on glucose formation. Glucose concentration increased by increasing the S/L ratio and hydrolysis time, but decreased by increasing the pH. Secondly, the hydrolysate obtained at most convenient hydrolysis conditions was subjected to lime putty treatment for the removal of 5-HMF and SO42−. Thirdly, H2 gas was produced from the detoxified hydrolysate by dark fermentation. Maximum H2 formation yield, rate and H2 percentage in the gas phase were 1.02 mol H2/mol glucoseconsumed, 130.22 mL H2/g biomass.h and 43%, respectively. The remaining 5-HMF after lime treatment was effectively removed in dark fermentation.


Acid hydrolysis Dark fermentation Detoxification Lime putty Waste paper towel 



This study was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBİTAK) by a Grant number of 113Y187.


  1. 1.
    European Comissiion: Green Public Procurement Tissue Paper-Draft., Report for the European Comission, DG-Environment by BRE, Brussels (2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Counsell, T.A.M., Allwood, J.M.: Desktop paper recycling: a survey of novel technologies that might recycle office paper within the office (2006).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang, L., Sharifzadeh, M., Templer, R., Murphy, R.J.: Technology performance and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from various waste papers. Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 5717–5730 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ingwersen, W., Gausman, M., Weisbrod, A., Sengupta, D., Lee, S.-J., Bare, J., Zanoli, E., Bhander, G.S., Ceja, M.: Detailed life cycle assessment of Bounty® paper towel operations in the United States. J. Clean. Prod. 131, 509–522 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Byadgi, S.A., Kalburgi, P.B.: ScienceDirect production of bioethanol from waste newspaper. Procedia Environ. Sci. 35, 555–562 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Botta, L.S., Ratti, R.P., Sakamoto, I.K., Ramos, L.R., Silva, E.L., Varesche, M.B.A: Bioconversion of waste office paper to hydrogen using pretreated rumen fluid inoculum. Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 39, 1887–1897 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thomas, G.: Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen Program., US DOE Hydrogen Program 2000 Annual review May 9–11, 2000. Sandia National Laboratories, San Raman, Livermore, California (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gavrilescu, D.: Energy from biomass in pulp and paper. Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 7, 537–546 (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kumar, G., Sivagurunathan, P., Kim, S.-H., Bakonyi, P., Lin, C.-Y., Kumar, G., Kim, S.-H., Sivagurunathan, P., Lin, C.-Y., Bakonyi, P..: Modeling and optimization of biohydrogen production from de-oiled jatropha using the response surface method. Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 40, 15–22 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Agbor, V.B., Cicek, N., Sparling, R., Berlin, A., Levin, D.B.: Biomass pretreatment: fundamentals toward application. Biotechnol. Adv. 29, 675–685 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jung, J.Y., Choi, M.S., Yang, J.K.: Optimization of concentrated acid hydrolysis of waste paper using response surface methodology. J. Korean Wood Sci. Technol. 41, 87–99 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fagan, R.D., Grethlein, H.E., Converse, A.O., Porteous, A.: Kinetics of the acid hydrolysis of cellulose found in paper refuse. Environ. Sci. Technol. 5, 545–547 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kumar, G., Sen, B., Lin, C.Y.: Pretreatment and hydrolysis methods for recovery of fermentable sugars from de-oiled Jatropha waste. Bioresour. Technol. 145, 275–279 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kumar, G., Sivagurunathan, P., Chen, C.-C., Lin, C.-Y.: Batch and continuous biogenic hydrogen fermentation of acid pretreated de-oiled jatropha waste (DJW) hydrolysate. RSC Adv. 6, 45482–45491 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guo, F., Fang, Z., Xu, C.C., Smith, R.L.: Solid acid mediated hydrolysis of biomass for producing biofuels. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 38, 672–690 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ferrer, A., Requejo, A., Rodríguez, A., Jiménez, L.: Influence of temperature, time, liquid/solid ratio and sulfuric acid concentration on the hydrolysis of palm empty fruit bunches. Bioresour. Technol. 129, 506–511 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kumar, P., Barrett, D.M., Delwiche, M.J., Stroeve, P.: Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 48, 3713–3729 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Conde-Mejía, C., Jiménez-Gutiérrez, A., El-Halwagi, M.: A comparison of pretreatment methods for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 90, 189–202 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Orozco, A.M., Al-Muhtaseb, A.H., Rooney, D., Walker, G.M., Aiouache, F., Ahmad, M.: Fermentable sugars recovery from lignocellulosic waste-newspaper by catalytic hydrolysis. Environ. Technol. 34, 3005–3016 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Torget, R.W., Kim, J.S., Lee, Y.Y.: Fundamental Aspects of dilute acid hydrolysis/fractionation kinetics of hardwood carbohydrates. 1. Cellulose hydrolysis. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39, 2817–2825 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Almeida, J.R.M., Bertilsson, M., Gorwa-Grauslund, M.F., Gorsich, S., Lidén, G.: Metabolic effects of furaldehydes and impacts on biotechnological processes. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 82, 625–638 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wierckx, N., Koopman, F., Ruijssenaars, H.J., De Winde, J.H.: Microbial degradation of furanic compounds: biochemistry, genetics, and impact. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 92, 1095–1105 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jeong, T.S., Choi, C.H., Lee, J.Y., Oh, K.K.: Behaviors of glucose decomposition during acid-catalyzed hydrothermal hydrolysis of pretreated Gelidium amansii. Bioresour. Technol. 116, 435–440 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Panagiotopoulos, A.I., Bakker, R.R., de Vrije, T., Koukios, E.G.: Effect of pretreatment severity on the conversion of barley straw to fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds. Bioresour. Technol. 102, 11204–11211 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vanhatalo, K.M., Dahl, O.P.: Effect of mild acid hydrolysis parameters on properties of microcrystalline cellulose. BioResources. 9, 4729–4740 (2014)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hayes, D.J., Ross, P.J., Hayes, P.M.H.B., Fitzpatrick, P.S.: The biofine process: production of levulinic acid, furfural and formic acid from lignocellulosic feedstocks. (1999)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Trajano, H.L., Wyman, C.E.: Fundamentals of biomass pretreatment at low pH. Aqueous Pretreat. Plant Biomass Biol. Chem. Convers. Fuels Chem. 103–128 (2013)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Huang, Y.-B., Fu, Y: Hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose by solid acid catalysts. Green Chem. 15, 1095–1111 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Salam, M.A., Pondith, P.C., Islam, A., Khan, M.R., Uddin, M.R., Islam, M.A.: Conversion of Cellulosic waste into fermentable sugar: process optimization. J Chem Eng, 28, 27–31 (2013)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rath, K.M., Maheshwari, A., Bengtson, P., Rousk, J.: Comparative toxicity of salts to microbial processes in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 82, AEM.04052-15 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jeihanipour, A., Karimi, K., Taherzadeh, M.J.: Acid Hydrolysis of Cellulose-based Waste Textiles. The 7th International Chemical Engineering Congress & Exhibition IChEC. pp. 21–24, Kish, Iran (2011)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Breuer, G., de Jaeger, L., Artus, V.P.G., Martens, D.E., Springer, J., Draaisma, R.B., Eggink, G., Wijffels, R.H., Lamers, P.P.: Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (II) evaluation of TAG yield and productivity in controlled photobioreactors. Biotechnol. Biofuels. 7, 70 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Argun, H., Onaran, G.: Hydrogen gas production from waste paper by sequential dark fermentation and electrohydrolysis. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 41, 8057–8066 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Argun, H., Kargi, F., Kapdan, I.K.: Hydrogen production by combined dark and light fermentation of ground wheat solution. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 34, 4305–4311 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kumar, G., Zhen, G., Kobayashi, T., Sivagurunathan, P., Kim, S.H., Xu, K.Q.: Impact of pH control and heat pre-treatment of seed inoculum in dark H2 fermentation: A feasibility report using mixed microalgae biomass as feedstock. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 41, 4382–4392 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    DuBois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A., Smith, F.: Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal. Chem. 28, 350–356 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang, J., Li, J., Tang, Y., Xue, G.: Rapid method for the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid using a double-wavelength UV spectroscopy. Scientific World J. 2013, 506329 (2013)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sluiter, A., Hames, B., Ruiz, R.O., Scarlata, C., Sluiter, J., Templeton, D., Energy, D. of: Determination of structural carbohydrates and lignin in biomass. Biomass Anal. Technol. Team Lab. Anal. Proced. 2011, 1–14 (2004)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Argun, H., Onaran, G.: Glucose and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural production from cellulosic waste by sequential alkaline and acid hydrolysis. Renew. Energy. 96, 442–449 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    International Organization for Standardization: ISO3260:1982 Pulps—Determination of chlorine consumption (Degree of delignification).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    EW Rice, RB Baird, AD. Eaton, L.S.C.: Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Am. Water Work. Assoc. Public Work. Assoc. Environ. Fed. 1469 (2012)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Argun, H., Dao, S.: Hydrogen gas production from waste peach pulp by dark fermentation and electrohydrolysis. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy. 41, 11568–11576 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Logan, B.E., Oh, S.E., Kim, I.S., Van Ginkel, S.: Biological hydrogen production measured in batch anaerobic respirometers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 2530–2535 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lee, K., Hsu, Y., Lo, Y., Lin, P., Lin, C., Chang, J.: Exploring optimal environmental factors for fermentative hydrogen production from starch using mixed anaerobic microflora. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 33, 1565–1572 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Argun, H., Kargi, F., Kapdan, I.K., Oztekin, R.: Batch dark fermentation of powdered wheat starch to hydrogen gas: effects of the initial substrate and biomass concentrations. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy. 33, 6109–6115 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Spets, J.P., Kuosa, M., Granström, T., Kiros, Y., Rantanen, J., Lampinen, M.J., Saari, K.: Production of glucose by starch and cellulose acid hydrolysis and its use as a fuel in low-temperature direct-mode fuel cells. Mater. Sci. Forum. 638–642, 1164–1169 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dubey, A.K., Gupta, P.K., Garg, N., Naithani, S.: Bioethanol production from waste paper acid pretreated hydrolyzate with xylose fermenting Pichia stipitis. Carbohydr. Polym. 88, 825–829 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yáñez, R., Alonso, J., Parajó, J.: Production of hemicellulosic sugars and glucose from residual corrugated cardboard. Process Biochem. 39, 1543–1551 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kumar, G., Cheon, H.-C., Kim, S.-H.: Effects of 5-hydromethylfurfural, levulinic acid and formic acid, pretreatment byproducts of biomass, on fermentative H2 production from glucose and galactose. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 39, 16885–16890 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Akobi, C., Hafez, H., Nakhla, G.: The impact of furfural concentrations and substrate-to-biomass ratios on biological hydrogen production from synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate using mesophilic anaerobic digester sludge. Bioresour. Technol. 221, 598–606 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jayakody, L.N., Hayashi, N., Kitagaki, H.: Molecular mechanisms for detoxification of major aldehyde inhibitors for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hot- compressed water-treated lignocellulose. In: Vilas, A.M. (ed.) Materials and processes for energy: communicating current research and technological developments Energy Book Series #1. pp. 302–311. Formatex Research Center, Badajoz-Spain (2013)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Feldman, D., Kowbel, D.J., Glass, N.L., Yarden, O., Hadar, Y.: Detoxification of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by the Pleurotus ostreatus lignolytic enzymes aryl alcohol oxidase and dehydrogenase. Biotechnol. Biofuels 8, 3–11 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ran, H., Zhang, J., Gao, Q., Lin, Z., Bao, J.: Analysis of biodegradation performance of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by Amorphotheca resinae ZN1. Biotechnol. Biofuels 7, 51 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Eker, S., Sarp, M.: Hydrogen gas production from waste paper by dark fermentation: effects of initial substrate and biomass concentrations. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 1–7 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey

Personalised recommendations