Assessment of the Quality of Drinking Water Sources and Human Health in a Rural Area of Solan, North India


A study to assess the quality of drinking water sources and health conditions of the natives in a rural location of Solan District (30° 54′ 16.76′′ N, 77° 05′ 48.18′′ E) was conducted during February–May in 2018. Water samples were collected from four different sites covering two different and only sources of water supply, i.e., Bawdi (natural well) and Handpump in the village. These collected samples were tested for the quality parameters such as color, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium hardness (Ca-H), magnesium hardness (Mg-H), ions such as Cl, CO32−, HCO3, Na+, K+ and selected metals (Fe, Pb and Cr). The Indian Standard methods were followed for the collection and analysis of water samples. A health survey was also conducted to check the current health conditions of the natives and correlate with the water chemistry. The results of health survey and chemical analysis of water samples collected from Bawdi and Handpump have been discussed in this paper and compared with the permissible limits of WHO and BIS.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. 1.

    D. Hinrichsen and H. Tacio, The coming freshwater crisis is already here. The linkages between population and water. Washington, DC, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, (2002) pp. 1–26.

  2. 2.

    Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment Report, World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund, (2000).

  3. 3.

    S. Karavoltsos, A. Sakellari, N. Mihopoulos, M. Dassenakis and M.J. Scoullos, Evaluation of the quality of drinking water in regions of Greece, Desalination, 224(1–3) (2008) 317–329.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    R.G. Sinclair, E.L. Jones and C.P. Gerba, Viruses in recreational water‐borne disease outbreaks: a review, J. Appl. Microbiol., 107(6) (2009) 1769–1780.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    U.K. Singh, A.L. Ramanathan and V. Subramanian, Groundwater chemistry and human health risk assessment in the mining region of East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India, Chemosphere, 204 (2018) 501–513.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    A. Khan, M. Shahnaz, N. Jehan, S. Rehman, M.T. Shah and I. Din, Drinking water quality and human health risk in Charsadda district, Pakistan, J. Clean. Prod., 60 (2013) 93–101.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    A.H. Smith, C. Hopenhayn-Rich, M.N. Bates, H.M. Goeden, I. Hertz-Picciotto, H.M. Duggan, R. Wood, M.J. Kosnett and M.T. Smith, Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water, Environ, Health Perspect., 97 (1992) 259.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    J.E. Marcovecchio, S.E. Botté and R.H. Freije, Heavy metals, major metals, trace elements, Handb. Water Anal., 2 (2007) 275–311.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    PCD, Pollution Control Department, Groundwater standards for drinking proposes. Manual inspection of contaminated groundwater standards for drinking proposes. Manual inspection of contaminated ground water from waste disposal facilities, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, (2000).

  10. 10.

    H. Carlson-Lynch, B.D. Beck and P.D. Boardman, Arsenic risk assessment, Environ. Health Perspect., 102(4) (1994) 354.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    P. Mushak and A.F. Crocetti, Risk and revisionism in arsenic cancer risk assessment, Environ. Health Perspect., 103(7–8) (1995) 684.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    H. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, K. Mutoh, M. Yamamoto and K. Katoh, Arsenic residues in well water 36 y after endemic arsenic poisoning, Arch. Environ. Health Int. J., 55(5) (2000) 364.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    R.E. Hall, A system of boiler water treatment based on chemical equilibrium, Ind. Eng. Chem., 17(3) (1925) 283–290.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    M. Chetia, S. Chatterjee, S. Banerjee, M.J. Nath, L. Singh, R.B. Srivastava and H.P. Sarma, Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India, Environ. Monit. Assess., 173(1–4) (2011) 371–385.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    K. Saravanakumar and R.R. Kumar, Analysis of water quality parameters of groundwater near Ambattur industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India, Indian J. Sci. Technol., 4(5) (2011) 660–662.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    S. Singh, N. Singh and S. Kumar, Quality of water in and around Chandigarh region: a review, J. Chem. Environ. Sci. Appl., 1(1) (2014) 33–43.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    S. Singh, A. Rani, R.K. Mahajan and T.P.S. Walia, Analysis of uranium and its correlation with some physico-chemical properties of drinking water samples from Amritsar, Punjab, J. Environ. Monit., 5(6) (2003) 917–921.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    J.K. Vodela, J.A. Renden, S.D. Lenz, W.H. McElhenney and B.W. Kemppainen, Drinking water contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, benzene, and trichloroethylene). 1. Interaction of contaminants with nutritional status on general performance and immune function in broiler chickens, Poult. Sci., 76(11) (1997) 1474–1492.

  19. 19.

    J. Wu and Z. Sun, Evaluation of shallow groundwater contamination and associated human health risk in an alluvial plain impacted by agricultural and industrial activities, mid-west China, Expo. Health, 8(3) (2016) 311–329.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    R.K. Rattan, S.P. Datta, P.K. Chhonkar, K. Suribabu and A.K. Singh, Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater-a case study, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 109(3–4) (2005) 310–322.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    S. Chotpantarat, S.K. Ong, C. Sutthirat and K. Osathaphan, Effect of pH on transport of Pb2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ through lateritic soil: column experiments and transport modeling, J. Environ. Sci., 23(4) (2011) 640–648.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    M.N. Rashed, Monitoring of contaminated toxic and heavy metals, from mine tailings through age accumulation, in soil and some wild plants at Southeast Egypt, J. Hazard. Mater., 178(1–3) (2010) 739–746.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    M. Taboada-Castro, A. Diéguez-Villar, M.L. Rodríguez-Blanco and M.T. Taboada-Castro, Agricultural impact of dissolved trace elements in runoff water from an experimental catchment with land-use changes, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 43(1–2) (2012) 81–87.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    D. Chakraborti, M.M. Rahman, S. Ahamed, R.N. Dutta, S. Pati and S.C. Mukherjee, Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in Patna district (capital of Bihar) in the middle Ganga plain, India, Chemosphere, 152 (2016) 520–529.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    D. Chakraborti, S.K. Singh, M.M. Rahman, R.N. Dutta, S.C. Mukherjee, S. Pati and P.B. Kar, Groundwater arsenic contamination in the ganga river basin: a future health danger, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 15(2) (2018) 180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    National Research Council, Arsenic in drinking water, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, (1999).

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    G.A. Wasserman, X. Liu, F. Parvez, H. Ahsan, P. Factor-Litvak, J. Kline, A. Van Geen, V. Slavkovich, N.J. Lolacono, D. Levy, Water arsenic exposure and intellectual function in 6-year-old children in Araihazar, Bangladesh, Environ. Health Perspect., 115 (2007) 285–289.

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    S.K. Singh and A.K. Ghosh, Health risk assessment due to groundwater arsenic contamination: children are at high risk, Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. Int. J., 18 (2012) 751–766.

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    A. Azizullah, M.N.K. Khattak, P. Richter and D.P. Hader, Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health-a review, Environ. Int., 37(2) (2011) 479–497.

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    E.O. Lawson, Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of water from the mangroves swamps of logos lagoon, logos, Nigeria, Adv. Biol. Res., 5(1) (2011) 08–21.

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Census, (2011).

  32. 32.

    Census, (2011), Part-A.

  33. 33.

    WHO report, Guideline for water quality, (2017), p. 222.;jsessionid=0305D1FF9281A11862AA6B24B42AB160?sequence=1.

  34. 34.

    B.L. Sandick, D.B. Engell and O. Maller, Perception of drinking water temperature and effects for humans after exercise, Physiol. Behav., 32(5) (1984) 851–855.

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    B. Benelam and L. Wyness, Hydration and health: a review, Nutr. Bull., 35(1) (2010) 3–25.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    World Health Organization Working Group, Health impact of acidic deposition, Sci. Total Environ., 52 (1986) 157–187.

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Health criteria and other supporting information, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2nd ed., (1996), Vol. 2.

  38. 38.

    S.M. Langan, Flares in childhood eczema, Skin Ther. Lett., 14(8) (2009) 1.

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    P. Sengupta, Potential health impacts of hard water, Int. J. Prev. Med., 4(8) (2013) 866.

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    L.G. Wesson, Physiology of the human kidney, New York, NY, Grune and Stratton, (1969), p. 591.

  41. 41.

    S. Murakami, Y. Goto, K. Ito, S. Hayasaka, S. Kurihara, T. Soga, M. Tomita and S. Fukuda, The consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water improves glycemic control. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, (2015).

  42. 42.

    Y. Zair, F. Kasbi-Chadli, B. Housez, M. Pichelin, M. Cazaubiel, F. Raoux and K. Ouguerram, Effect of a high bicarbonate mineral water on fasting and postprandial lipemia in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study, Lipids Health Dis., 12(1) (2013) 105.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    R. Siener, A. Jahnen and A. Hesse, Influence of a mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallization, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58(2) (2004) 270.

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    USEPA, Edition of the Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories, (2018).

  45. 45.

    Potassium in drinking-water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality, WHO/HSE/WSH/09.01/7.

  46. 46.

    N. Jain, S. Kotla, B.B. Little, R.A. Weideman, E.S. Brilakis, R.F. Reilly and S. Banerjee, Predictors of hyperkalemia and death in patients with cardiac and renal disease, Am. J. Cardiol., 109(10) (2012) 1510–1513.

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    G.M. McMahon, M.L. Mendu, F.K. Gibbons and K.B. Christopher, Association between hyperkalemia at critical care initiation and mortality, Intensive Care Med., 38 (2012) 1834–1842.

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    J. Khanagavi, T. Gupta, W.S. Aronow, T. Shah, J. Garg, C. Ahn, S. Sule and S. Peterson, Hyperkalemia among hospitalized patients and association between duration of hyperkalemia and outcomes, Arch. Med. Sci. AMS, 10(2) (2012) 251.

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    C.A. Finch and E.R. Monsen, Iron nutrition and the fortification of food with iron, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 219 (1972) 1462–1465.

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    G. Papanikolaou and K. Pantopoulos, Iron metabolism and toxicity, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 202(2) (2005) 199–211.

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    X. Huang, Iron overload and its association with cancer risk in humans: evidence for iron as a carcinogenic metal, Mutat. Res. 533 (2003) 153–171.

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Y. Kohgo, K. Ikuta, T. Ohtake, Y. Torimoto and J. Kato, Body iron metabolism and pathophysiology of iron overload, Int. J. Hematol., 88(1) (2008) 7–15.

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Iron In Drinking Water, Environmental Health Fact Sheet, Department of Public Health, Bruce Rauner, Governer, Illions, accessed online on Sep 15, 2019.

  54. 54.

    Illions Department of Public Health, Iron in Drinking Water, Health, retrieved online on Sep 15, 2019.

  55. 55.

    S. Martin, Human health effects of heavy metals, Issue 15 March 2009.

  56. 56.

    USEPA Web Document, Basic information about lead in drinking water, accessed online on Sep 15, 2019.

  57. 57.

    WHO Document, Lead poisoning and health, 23 August 2018, accessed online on September 15, 2019.

  58. 58.

    M. Hanna-Attisha, J. LaChance, R.C. Sadler and A. Champney Schnepp, Elevated blood lead levels in children associated with the Flint drinking water crisis: a spatial analysis of risk and public health response, Am. J. Public Health, 106(2) (2016) 283–290.

  59. 59.

    A. Zhitkovich, Chromium in drinking water: sources, metabolism, and cancer risks, Chem. Res. Toxicol., 24(10) (2011) 1617–1629.

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    A.H. Smith and C.M. Steinmaus, Health effects of arsenic and chromium in drinking water: recent human findings, Ann. Rev. Public Health, 30 (2009) 107–122.

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    C. Pellerin and S.M. Booker, Reflections on hexavalent chromium: health hazards of an industrial heavyweight, Environ. Health Perspect., 108(9) (2000) A402–A407.

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    M. Costa and C.B. Klein, Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in humans, Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 36(2) (2006) 155–163.

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    R.M. Sedman, J.A.Y. Beaumont, T.A. McDonald, S. Reynolds, G. Krowech and R. Howd, Review of the evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium in drinking water, J. Environ. Sci. Health C, 24(1) (2006) 155–182.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


Authors are thankful to Dr Amjad Ali, Head, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, for providing research lab facilities and Management and Vice-Chancellor, MMDU, Mullana, Haryana, for providing research opportunity. Thanks are also due to Mr Chander Thakur, Chemistry Lab Technician, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, and residents of Bhojnagar village for their support in the collection of health data.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to N. Singh.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (PDF 8 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Singh, N., Sharma, M. Assessment of the Quality of Drinking Water Sources and Human Health in a Rural Area of Solan, North India. MAPAN 35, 301–308 (2020).

Download citation


  • Bawdi water
  • Drinking water quality
  • Solan
  • Chromium
  • Handpump
  • Toxicity