, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 51–58 | Cite as

Carbon Dioxide Respiration Rates in Wheat at Various Temperatures and Moisture Contents

  • E. Raudienė
  • D. Rušinskas
  • G. Balčiūnas
  • G. Juodeikienė
  • D. Gailius
Case Report


Modern management practices are needed to avoid developing of hot spots in stored grain which would allow to reduce grain quantity and quality losses, decrease mycotoxin production in the food chain, and avoid financial losses. Experiments were performed to use the carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement system for early detection of spoilage in grain instead of spoilage detection, using the traditional methods, such as temperature measurement, visual or smell inspection. The CO2 production rate of wheat at different grain moisture contents (13, 15, 17 and 19%) and various temperatures (16, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) was measured, while visibly evaluating mold formation levels at the same time. Experiments were performed using grain model systems in the controlled environment. The study found that wheat respiration rate increases when both temperature and/or grain moisture content increases. Substantial differences were found in the respiration rate of wheat at 19% moisture content at 30 and 35 °C temperatures after several days from the beginning of an experiment when the visible mold formation started. It is shown, that the CO2 production rate measurement may be useful for spoilage detection at an early stage in stored grain.


Carbon dioxide Respiration rate Moisture content Temperature Stored grain 


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Copyright information

© Metrology Society of India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Raudienė
    • 1
  • D. Rušinskas
    • 2
  • G. Balčiūnas
    • 1
  • G. Juodeikienė
    • 3
  • D. Gailius
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of MetrologyKaunas University of TechnologyKaunasLithuania
  2. 2.Department of Electronics EngineeringKaunas University of TechnologyKaunasLithuania
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and TechnologyKaunas University of TechnologyKaunasLithuania

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