Psychological Studies

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 253–265 | Cite as

Influence of Peers’ Types of Trust on Trust Repair: The Role of Apologies

  • Engin Bağış Öztürk
  • Niels G. Noorderhaven


This study aims to answer the question how previous trust experiences contextualize trust repair efforts. The concepts of calculus-based and relational trust are utilized to show the influence of the kind of trust on trust repair tactics, specifically apologies. We focus on a neglected referent of trust, that is trust between peers, and elucidate apology and its complements that might be effective between peers. We propose that the effectiveness of apologies and its specific complements depend not only on trust breach but also on the type of trust prior to a breach. Specifically, we claim that when apology is complemented with compensation or external attributions, these tactics repair trust more effectively in calculus-based trust. But, when apology is complemented with empathy, acknowledgment of violated norms, and extensive involvement, these tactics can effectively repair trust in relational trust. The paper aims to contribute to our understanding of apologies and the effectiveness of it under different conditions.


Interpersonal trust Peer/coworker Type of trust Trust breach Trust repair Apology 



The first author’s contribution is supported by a grant from the Higher Education Council of Turkey and Center for Innovation Research at Tilburg University. We would like to thank Arzu Wasti (Sabanci University), Martyna Janowicz-Panjaitan (Tilburg University), and Selcen Kılıçaslan Gökoğlu (Dokuz Eylul University) for their suggestions on earlier versions of this paper


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Copyright information

© National Academy of Psychology (NAOP) India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Engin Bağış Öztürk
    • 1
  • Niels G. Noorderhaven
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Business AdministrationDokuz Eylul UniversityIzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of ManagementTilburg UniversityTilburgThe Netherlands

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