Advertisement

Psychological Studies

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 1–8 | Cite as

Type of Illness and Efficacy of Awareness on Pre-surgery Anxiety Among In-patients Awaiting Surgery in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

  • Mfon E. Ineme
  • Ofonasaha A. Ekpo
  • Gboyega E. Abikoye
  • Emaimo I. Essien
  • Eyo E. Ekpo
  • Helen O. Osinowo
Target Article (with peer commentary)
  • 48 Downloads

Abstract

The study investigated type of illness and efficacy of awareness on pre-surgery anxiety among in-patients awaiting surgery in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. Participants were 41 males and 48 females whose ages ranged from 20 to 51 years with a mean age of 39.3 years. Of the 89 participants, 42 had severe illnesses, while 47 mild illnesses. A revalidated state anxiety sub-scale of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess pre-surgery anxiety, while a validated awareness package was used as an intervention to give indicative and informative awareness. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in pre-surgical anxiety between participants with severe illnesses and those with mild illnesses {t (67) = 0.56, p > .05}. The post-intervention results {t (87) = 5.61, < .05} showed that participants who received indicative awareness reported significantly lower pre-surgical anxiety than those who received informative awareness. However, results showed that participants were not significantly different prior to the intervention (awareness) {t (87) = 1.42, p > .05). Results of analysis of variance ANOVA revealed a significant interaction effect of type of illness and awareness on pre-surgery anxiety among the patients sampled {F(1, 86) = 0.020217, p < 0.05}. These results confirmed some earlier studies and refuted some others. It is commended that the indicative awareness package be used as an adjunct in the management of patients awaiting surgery of any kind.

Keywords

Awareness Type of illness Pre-surgery anxiety In-patients 

References

  1. Afolabi, O. (2009). The roles of educational attainment and type of illness on pre-surgery anxiety. An International Journal of Psychology in Africa, 17(2), 271–281.Google Scholar
  2. Barlow, D. H., & Durand, V. M. (2002). Abnormal psychology: An integrative approach (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson.Google Scholar
  3. Coker, A. O., Balogun, M. M., Balogun, B. G., & Adekoya, B. J. (2016). Assessment of pre and post operative psychiatric comorbidity among patients scheduled for elective cataract surgery in Lagos, Nigeria. Research Journal of Health Sciences, 4(3), 232–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crosby, F. J. (1976). Theories of anxiety: A theoretical perspective. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 36(3), 237–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ebirim, L. & Tobin, M. (2010). Factors responsible for pre-operative anxiety in elective surgical patients at a University Teaching Hospital: A pilot study. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology, 29(2). Available at ispub.com/journal.
  6. Eysenck, M. W. (1990). Trait anxiety and stress. In S. Fisher & J. Reason (Eds.), Handbook of life stress, cognition and health. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Freud, S. (1936). The ego and the mechanisms of defence. London: Hargarth Press.Google Scholar
  8. Halgin, R. P., & Whitbourne, S. K. (2003). Abnormal psychology: Clinical perspective on psychological disorders. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  9. Hornby, A. S. (2003). Oxford advanced learners dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Izard, C. E. (1991). The psychology of emotions. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jawaid, M., Mushtag, A., Muktar, S., & Khan, Z. (2007). Preoperative anxiety before elective surgery. Neurosciences, 12(2), 145–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Karageorghis, C. (2007). Competition anxiety needn’t get you down. Peak Performance, 243, 4–5. Retrieved from https://www.peakendurancesport.com/endurance-psychology/coping-withemotions/competition-anxiety-neednt-get/.Google Scholar
  13. Karanci, A. N., & Dirik, G. (2003). Predictors of pre- and postoperative anxiety in emergency surgery patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55(4), 363–369.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lepczyk, M., Raleigh, E. H., & Rowley, C. (2009). Timing of preoperative patient teaching. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15(3), 300–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ludlam, R., & Bennett, R. (1971). Comparison of diazepam and morphine as premedication for gastrointestinal endoscopy. The Lancet, 298(773), 1397–1399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Matthew, P., Malik, R. H., Yaddanappudi, S., Kohli, A. & Panda, N. B. (2014). Assessment of factors affecting pre-operative anxiety and compliance to anaesthesia induction in school-going children. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 99(2), 137–138.Google Scholar
  17. Merker, B. (2007). Conscious children: A brief look at Hydranencephaly. Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/merry2e/conscious-children-brief-look-hydranencephaly.
  18. National Population Commission (2006). National census report, 2006. Available at http://www.npc.org. Retrieved on September 14, 2016.
  19. Ohman, A. (1993). Fear and anxiety as emotional phenomena: Clinical phenomenology, evolutionary perspectives, and information—Processing mechanisms. In M. Lavis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of the emotions. (pp. 511–536) New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  20. Omoluabi, P. F. (1997). Psychophysiological patterns of anxiety in the development of psychopathology. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Lagos, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  21. Owen, S., & Could, D. (1997). Underwater seal chest drains: The patients experience. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 6(3), 215–225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Pritchard, J. M. (2009). Identifying and assessing anxiety in pre-operative patients. Nursing Standards, 23(5), 35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ramesh, C., Nayak, B. S., Pai, V. B., George, A., George, L. S., & Devi, E. S. (2017). Preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery-A cross sectional study. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, 7, 31–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijans.2017.06.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. (STAI Form Y). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  25. Stern, M. J., Pascale, L., & McLoone, J. B. (1976). Psychosocial adaptation following an acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Chronic Disorders, 29(8), 513–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Suls, J., & Wan, C. K. (1989). Effects of sensory and procedural information on copying with stressful medical procedures and pain: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(3), 372–379.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Tallon-Baudry, C. (2009). The roles of gamma-band oscillatory synchrony in human visual cognition. Frontiers in Bioscience, 14(1), 321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tluczek, A., Henriques, J. B., & Brown, R. L. (2009). Support for the reliability and validity of a six-item state anxiety scale derived from the state-trait anxiety inventory. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 17(1), 19–28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Uniuyo website (2015). Available at http://www.uuthuyo.com. Retrieved on January 22, 2015.
  30. Wyart, V., & Tallon-Baudry, C. (2009). How ongoing fluctuations in human visual cortex predict perceptual awareness: Baseline shift versus decision bias. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(27), 8715–8725.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Zuckermaa, M. & Lubin, B. (1956). Manual for the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© National Academy of Psychology (NAOP) India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mfon E. Ineme
    • 1
  • Ofonasaha A. Ekpo
    • 2
  • Gboyega E. Abikoye
    • 1
  • Emaimo I. Essien
    • 3
  • Eyo E. Ekpo
    • 2
  • Helen O. Osinowo
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of UyoUyoNigeria
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Uyo Teaching HospitalUyoNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Community HealthUniversity of Uyo Teaching HospitalUyoNigeria
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations