Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 301–309 | Cite as

A Brief Review of Neurotoxicity Induced by Melamine

REVIEW

Abstract

In September 2008, in China, tens of thousands of children were hospitalized, several even died, as a result of infant-formula milk adulterated with a synthetic chemical compound, melamine, and in the next few months, this crisis became the focus of attention worldwide. Although there are a number of articles about nephrotoxicity of melamine, the evidence of melamine toxicity on other organs is still scanty. Specially, several recent studies indicated that melamine can perturb the central nervous system (CNS) function and induce cognitive deficits, breaking the previous view that melamine toxicity is limited to the urinary system. This review focuses on some developmental consequences of melamine exposures through various routes in vitro and in vivo, from ethology to molecular and cellular assessments. The evidences demonstrate that the neurotoxic effects of melamine were varied from different route exposure. Finally, the relevant literature on the mechanisms of these aspects has been discussed, and some suggestions towards further researches have been presented.

Keywords

Melamine Neurotoxicity Learning and memory Synaptic plasticity Oxidative stress Ion channels 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors thank Xiaoliang Li and Yang Yang for revised, further improved, and polished in language of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical College of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and RehabilitationGuangzhou University of Chinese MedicineGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.South China Research Center for Acupuncture-MoxibustionGuangzhou University of Chinese MedicineGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

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