Antiparasitic potentiality of ethanol and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica leaf for eggs and copepodid stage of Argulus japonicus: in vitro study

Abstract

In the present study, eggs and copepodid stages of Argulus japonicus were treated with ethanol and methanol extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf and its antiparasitic efficacy (AE %) was determined. The experiments were performed in triplicate along with the positive (2% DMSO) and negative (without DMSO and extract) control groups. The reduced cumulative hatching percentage of eggs by 13% (in ethanolic) and 17% (in methanolic) extract of neem leaf at 1.5 g L−1 was obtained during 15-day exposure compared to the control group showing 70–85% eggs hatching. The AE of 100% for ethanolic and 91.66% for methanolic extract against the copepodid stage was found at 1.25 and 1.5 g L−1 respectively in 6 h. The histological analysis of the eggs showed the undifferentiated decaying mass of cells with extensively damaged eggs when treated with ethanolic extract of neem leaf. Further, severe degeneration in the branchial region, digestive tract and eye cells was observed in the copepodids treated with ethanol extract than the methanol extract. The terpenoids a potential antiparasitic compound of ethanolic extract produced more AE than the methanolic extract. Thus, the ethanolic extract of neem leaf can be potentially utilized as a natural parasiticide to disrupt the egg and other life phases of A. japonicus.

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Data availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgement

The authors owe their thankfulness and gratitude to ICAR, The Director and Vice-Chancellor, ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, India, for providing all the facilities required for the present work.

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Kumari, P., Kumar, S., Deo, A.D. et al. Antiparasitic potentiality of ethanol and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica leaf for eggs and copepodid stage of Argulus japonicus: in vitro study. J Parasit Dis (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-021-01355-4

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Keywords

  • Azadirachta indica
  • Ethanol extract
  • Antiparasitic efficacy
  • Argulus japonicus
  • Eggs
  • Copepodid