Oxygen and Carbon Distribution in 80Kg Multicrystalline Silicon Ingot


Multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafers produced by directional solidification still dominate the world market, due to the factor quality/price. The performance of solar cell depends directly to the quality of wafer and impurities distribution in mc-Si ingot. In our study we investigate the distribution of the interstitial oxygen (Oi) and substitutional carbon (Cs), from the bottom to top of the silicon ingot. During the solidification process the solid-liquid interface moves upward with an average growth velocity of 1.2 cm/h, with a slightly convex form. The determination of (Oi) and (Cs) concentrations were performed thanks to the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) technique. The results show that oxygen concentration increases near the crucible wall to the maximum value of 6.3 × 1017 atoms/cm3, and the carbon concentration decrease from maximum value of 9.59 × 1017 atoms/cm3 in the top to the minimal value of 7.84 × 1017 atoms/cm3 in the bottom of ingot. The concentration of global carbon and oxygen in the centre and corner bricks was investigated using the Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) technique. The concentration of oxygen and carbon in the center bricks were 1.8 1018 and 2 1018 atoms/cm3, and in the corner bricks 4.6 × 1019 and 9 × 1019 atoms/cm3, respectively. These results provide quantitative information on the concentration of the light impurities in the as-grown mc-Si and allow an overview of their spatial distribution within the final ingot.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    SubhashChander AP, Sharma A, Nehra SP, Dhaka MS (2015) Impact of temperature on performance of series and parallel connected mono-crystalline silicon solar cells. Energy Rep 1:175–180

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Blakers A, Zin N, McIntosh K et al (2013) High efficiency silicon solar cells. Energy Procedia 33:1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Hoffmann W (2006) PV solar electricity industry: market growth and perspective. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 90:3285–3311

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 2014, EPIA (2011) http://www.epia.org/fileadmin/EPIA_docs/public/Global_Market_Outlook_for_Photovoltaics_until_2014.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 11

  5. 5.

    Popovich A, Geerstma W, Janssen M, Bennett IJ, Richardson IM (2015) Mechanical strength of silicon solar wafers characterized by ring-on-ring test in combination with digital image correlationv. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119093503.ch28

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Matsuo H, Bairava Ganesh R, Nakano S, Liu L, Arafune K, Ohshita Y, Yamaguchi M, Kakimoto K (2008) Analysis of oxygen incorporation in unidirectionally solidified multicrystalline silicon for solar cells. J Cryst Growth 310:2204–2208

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Bellmann MP, Meese EA, Arnberg L (2010) Impurity segregation in directional solidified multi-crystalline silicon. J Cryst Growth 312:3091–3095

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Raabe L, Pätzold O, IvenKupka JE, SindyWurzner MS (2011) The effect of graphite components and crucible coating on the behavior of carbon and oxygen in multicrystalline silicon. J Cryst Growth 318:234–238

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Modanese C, Di Sabatino M, Soiland A-K, Kristian P, Arnberg L (2011) Investigation of bulk and solar cell propreties of ingots cast from compensated solar grade silicon. Prog Photovolt Res Appl 19:45–53

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Oudjaout D, Gritli Y, Rahab A, Boullmerka H, Manseri A, Hamadas I, Ahmanache A, Bendir R, Kerkar F, Boumaour M (2005). Growth by the heat exchanger method of multi-crystalline silicon ingot.20th European photovoltaic solar energy conference, Barcelona, Spain: 990–991

  11. 11.

    Khattak C P and Schmidt F (1996). Automation in HEM silicon ingot production. Conference record of the twenty fifth IEEE photovoltaic specialists: 597–600

  12. 12.

    Möller HJ, Funke C, Kerbner-Kiel D, Würzner S (2011) Growth and optimization of multicrystallin silicon. Energy pocedia 3:2–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    L. Gedvilas, B. Keyes, T. Ciszek, G. Jorgensen, B. Nelson, Y. Xu, J. Perkins (2003 ). The FTIR Laboratory in Support of the PV Program. Presented at the National Center for Photovoltaics and Solar Program Review Meeting Denver, Colorado NREL/CP-520-33576

  14. 14.

    Kvande R, Mjøs Ø, Ryningen B (2005) Growth rate and impurity distribution in multicrystallinesilicon for solar cells. Mater Sci Eng A 413–414:545–549

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Xi Z, Tang J, Deng H, Yang D, Que D (2007) A model for distribution of oxygen in multicrystalline silicon ingot grown by directional solidification. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 91:1688–1691

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    K. Hoshikawa, X. Huang (2000). Oxygen transportation during Czochralski silicon crystal growth. Materials Science and Engineering B72: 73–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Hirata H, Hoshikawa K (1988) Defect and impurity engineered semiconductors and devices. Japan. Association. Crystal Growth 15: 207–216

Download references


The authors are grateful for financial support by the FNR/CRTSE/DGRSDT/MESRS of Algeria.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fouad Kerkar.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kerkar, F., Kheloufi, A., Dokhan, N. et al. Oxygen and Carbon Distribution in 80Kg Multicrystalline Silicon Ingot. Silicon 12, 473–478 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-019-00154-0

Download citation


  • Multicrystalline silicon
  • Solidification
  • Interstitial oxygen (Oi)
  • Substitutional carbon (Cs)
  • Fourier transform infrared spectrometry FTIR