Table 3 Plasma levels of insulin, ghrelin, and leptin at four time-points

From: Postoperative hunger after outpatient surgery in patients anesthetized with propofol vs sevoflurane: a randomized-controlled trialFaim postopératoire après une chirurgie ambulatoire chez les patientes anesthésiés à l’aide de propofol vs sévoflurane: une étude randomisée contrôlée

 Sevoflurane (n=58)Propofol (n=58)Difference (95% CI)Unadjusted P value between groupsAdjusted P value between groups
Insulin (µU·mL−1)     
 Before anesthesia7.9 [6.4–11.3]7.8 [6.0–10.9]   
 10 min post EOA6.5 [4.3–10.3]6.9 [5.1–10.0]0.5 (− 0.9 to 2.0)0.470.99
 1 hr post EOA8.4 [6.5–12.9]7.1 [4.3–9.1]− 2.3 (− 3.9 to − 0.6)0.010.09
 2 hr post EOA15.0 [9.0–26.2]***12.5 [5.8–25.1]**−2.3 (− 6.3 to 1.5)0.210.94
Ghrelin (pg·mL−1)     
 Before anesthesia448.4 (341.7–663.9]448.2 [285.6–648.2]   
 10 min post EOA338.6 [247.7–463.1]***364.2 [284.4–491.9]***13.9 (− 49.7 to 83.9)0.620.99
 1 hr post EOA336.9 [237.7–458.7]***365.1 [279.7–523.7]***32.4 (− 33.1 to 107.4)0.370.99
 2 hr post EOA328.8 [245.7–424.6]***319.0 [232.2–516.3]***12.4 (− 49.0 to 88.6)0.680.99
Leptin (ng/mL)     
 Before anesthesia18.2 [12.3–31.7]18.3 [10.1–33.3]   
 10 min post EOA18.2 [12.0–29.3]19.9 [7.6–34.4]− 0.5 (− 6.2 to 5.1)0.850.99
 1 hr post EOA17.5 [10.8–25.9]***18.0 [7.3–27.3]***− 1.2 (− 5.9 to 3.8)0.670.99
 2 hr post EOA15.9 [9.0–27.3]***15.5 [7.5–25.2]***− 0.6 (− 4.6 to 4.5)0.740.99
Insulin (% change vs baseline)     
 Before anesthesia000  
 10 min post EOA− 24.7 [− 45.9 to 18.7]− 9.1 [− 30.1 to 17.4]12.6 (− 2.2 to 27.9)0.090.69
 1 hr post EOA4.9 [− 16.2 to 43.4]− 21.2 [− 35.7 to 9.1]−24.0 (− 38.1 to −10.0)0.0010.01
 2 hr post EOA59.6 [− 2.5 to 212.4]***35.2 [− 9.2 to 231.2]**−15.8 (− 53.5 to 17.7)0.360.99
Ghrelin (% change vs baseline)     
 Before anesthesia000  
 10 min post EOA− 21.5 [− 34.3 to − 16.8]***− 23.8 [− 32.9 to − 7.2]***+1.5 (− 4.4 to 8.7)0.590.99
 1 hr post EOA− 24.7 [− 38.6 to − 14.4]***− 13.4 [− 29.7 to − 2.9]***+9.9 (3.5 to 16.7)0.0040.06
 2 hr post EOA− 27.5 [− 43.7 to − 19.9]***− 22.6 [− 40.1 to − 7.1]***+5.8 (− 2.6 to 13.8)0.180.99
Leptin (% change vs baseline)     
 Before anesthesia000  
 10 min post EOA− 8.5 [− 21.1 to 8.3]− 8.8 [− 20.5 to 5.1]− 0.2 (− 9.1 to 8.4)0.960.99
 1 hr post EOA− 18.1 [− 25.6 to − 1.9]***− 19.7 [− 29.1 to − 4.0]***− 3.2 (− 9.1 to 3.6)0.360.99
 2 hr post EOA− 23.9 [− 30.7 to − 14.0]***− 21.9 [− 30.4 to − 13.4]***1.4 (− 3.9 to 6.6)0.630.99
  1. Results are expressed as median [IQR] and were compared between groups for each peptide and each time-point by a Mann–Whitney test with a correction of P values for multiple testing.
  2. An adjusted P < 0.05 was considered significant. Relative change compared with baseline within each group was tested using a Wilcoxon’s paired test with Bonferroni’s procedure. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001; all other comparisons of relative changes to baseline were non-significant (P > 0.05) after Bonferroni’s procedure. Adjusted for multiple-testing procedure by Westfall’s method. CI = confidence interval; EOA = end of anesthesia; IQR = interquartile range.