Table 2 Patient characteristics

From: Four early warning scores predict mortality in emergency surgical patients at University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka: a prospective observational studyQuatre scores d’évaluation d’alerte précoce pour prédire la mortalité des patients chirurgicaux d’urgence au Centre hospitalier universitaire de Lusaka : une étude observationnelle prospective

 SurvivedDiedAll patients
Age37 (18–82)45 (25–86)38 (18–86)
Female56 (24)5 (26)61 (24)
Admitted at weekend54 (23)4 (21)58 (23)
HIV positive4 (21)46 (21)50 (20)
On ART4 (21)45 (19)49 (19)
TB on admission5 (2)0 (0)5 (2)
TB during inpatient6 (2.6)0 (0)6 (2.4)
NEWS day 13 (0–13)7 (1–17)3 (0–17)
NEWS day 22 (0–12)7 (0–14)2 (0–14)
MEWS day 13 (0–8)5 (2–10)3 (0–10)
MEWS day 22 (0–7)3 (1–9)2 (0–9)
HOTEL1 (0–3)1 (0–4)1 (0–4)
TOTAL1 (0–2)2 (0–5)1 (0–5)
Length of stay7 (1–60)6 (2–30)7 (1–60)
Surgical specialty
Trauma  110 (37)
General  91 (32)
Urology  19 (6.3)
Orthopedics  38 (13)
Maxillary facial  12 (4)
Ear, nose, throat  9 (3)
Neurosurgery  8 (2.7)
Gynecology  3 (1)
Plastic  3 (1)
  1. Variables are number (percentage), median (range). “Admitted at weekend” refers to patients admitted on a Saturday or Sunday. Surgical specialty refers to the surgical specialty required on admission
  2. ART = antiretroviral therapy; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; HOTEL = hypotension, oxygen saturation, low temperature, electrocardiogram abnormalities, loss of independence score; MEWS = Modified Early Warning Score; NEWS = the National Early Warning Score; TB = tuberculosis