Table 1 Components of the early warning scoring systems studied

From: Four early warning scores predict mortality in emergency surgical patients at University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka: a prospective observational studyQuatre scores d’évaluation d’alerte précoce pour prédire la mortalité des patients chirurgicaux d’urgence au Centre hospitalier universitaire de Lusaka : une étude observationnelle prospective

 NEWSMEWSmHOTELTOTALmNEWS
SBP≤ 90 mmHg3≤ 70 mmHg3< 100 mmHg1    
90–100 mmHg271–80 mmHg2≥ 100 mmHg0
101–110 mmHg181–100 mmHg1  
110–219 mmHg0101–199 mmHg0  
  ≥ 200 mmHg2  
HR≤ 40 bpm3≤ 40 bpm2    ≤ 40 bpm3
41–50 bpm141–50 bpm141–50 bpm1
51–90 bpm051–100 bpm051–90 bpm0
91–110 bpm1101–110 bpm191–110 bpm1
111–130 bpm2111–129 bpm 111–130 bpm2
≥ 131 bpm3≥ 130 bpm2≥ 131 bpm 
     3
   3  
RR< 8 bpm3< 9 bpm2  ≤ 40 bpm1< 8 bpm3
9–11 bpm19–14 bpm0> 30 bpm09–11 bpm1
12–20 bpm015–20 bpm1  12–20 bpm0
21–24 bpm221–29 bpm2  21–24 bpm2
> 25 bpm3≥ 30 bpm3  > 25 bpm3
AVPUAlert0Alert0  Alert0Alert0
Reacts to voice3Reacts to voice1Reacts to voice1Reacts to voice3
Reacts to pain Reacts to pain Reacts to pain Reacts to pain 
Unresponsive3Unresponsive2Unresponsive1Unresponsive3
 3      
   3 1 3
Temperature≤ 35.0°C3≤ 35°C2< 35°C1< 35°C1≤ 35.0°C3
35.1–36.0°C135–38.4°C0≥ 35°C0≥ 35°C035.1–36.0°C1
36.1–38.0°C0≥ 38.5°C3    36.1–38.0°C0
38.1–39°C1      38.1–39°C1
 2       2
Sp02≤ 91%3  < 90 %1< 90 %1  
92–93%2≥ 90%0≥ 90%0
94–95%1    
≥ 96%0    
Rx O2Yes2      Yes2
No0No0
Loss of independence    Unable to get out of a chair without help1Unable to get out of a chair without help1  
Able to get out of a chair without help0Able to get out of a chair without help0
Total score range0–200–150–40–50–14
  1. Numbers refer to the score range that can be applied to each component of the earlier warning scores depending on the degree of physiologic abnormality. Cut-off values for physiologic variables can be found in the references.6,7,16
  2. AVPU = the alert, verbal, pain, unconscious scale of level of consciousness; bpm = breaths per minute or beats per minute; HR = heart rate; MEWS = Modified Early Warning Score; mHOTEL = modified hypotension, oxygen saturation, temperature, (electrocardiogram* not included), loss of independence; NEWS = National Early Warning Score; TOTAL = tachypnoea, oxygen saturation, temperature, alertness, loss of independence; mNEWS = modified National Early Warning Score; RR = respiratory rate; Rx O2 = supplementary oxygen; SBP = systolic blood pressure; Sp02 = pulse oximetry