Mindfulness Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors: Current Findings and Future Directions
- 235 Downloads
Purpose of review
The goal of this review is to provide an overview of current findings on mindfulness interventions (MIs) for use with breast cancer survivors. We highlight new research and identify several theoretical and conceptual issues worthy of further consideration.
To date, randomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of MIs in mitigating adverse psychological, behavioral, and biological outcomes in breast cancer survivors, at least in the short term and in comparison to usual care or wait list controls. Research is now moving towards evaluating the effectiveness of MIs, determining whether MIs produce lasting benefits, and identifying mechanisms of action.
Preliminary research supports the feasibility and efficacy of MIs for use with breast cancer survivors. There are gaps in our understanding, however, of how and for whom MIs are most effective. Future research to enhance current methodologies is warranted.
KeywordsBreast cancer Cancer survivorship Mindfulness Mindfulness-based interventions
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
- 1.Smalley SL, Winston D. Fully present: The science, art, and practice of mindfulness. Cambridge, Mass.: De Capo` Lifelong; 2010.Google Scholar
- 8.Carlson LE, Speca M. Mindfulness-based cancer recovery: a step-by-step MBSR approach to help you cope with treatment and reclaim your life. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.; 2011.Google Scholar
- 9.Santorelli SF. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR): standards of practice [internet]. 2014. Available from: https://www.umassmed.edu/cfm/mindfulness-based-programs/mbsr-courses/about-mbsr/mbsr-standards-of-practice/
- 10.UCLA Mindful Awareness Research Center. MAPs Classes [Internet]. 2017. Available from: http://marc.ucla.edu/maps-classes
- 11.Segal ZV, Williams JMG, Teasdale JD. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press. 2002;Google Scholar
- 12.Lengacher CA, Reich RR, Ramesar S, Alinat CB, Moscoso M, Cousin L, et al. Feasibility of the mobile mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer (mMBSR(BC)) program for symptom improvement among breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 2017:1–8.Google Scholar
- 13.Zernicke KA, Campbell TS, Speca M, Ruff KMC, Flowers S, Tamagawa R, et al. The eCALM trial: eTherapy for cancer applying mindfulness. Exploratory analyses of the associations between online mindfulness-based cancer recovery participation and changes in mood, stress symptoms, mindfulness, posttraumatic growth, and spirituality. Mindfulness (N. Y). Mindfulness; 2016;7:1071–1081.Google Scholar
- 22.Hoffman CJ, Ersser SJ, Hopkinson JB, Nicholls PG, Harrington JE, Thomas PW. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in mood, breast- and endocrine-related quality of life, and well-being in stage 0 to III breast cancer: A randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1335–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Würtzen H, Dalton SO, Elsass P, Sumbundu AD, Steding-Jensen M, Karlsen RV, et al. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression: results of a randomised controlled trial among 336 Danish women treated for stage I-III breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:1365–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Lengacher CA, Shelton MM, Reich RR, Barta MK, Johnson-Mallard V, Moscoso MS, et al. Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR(BC)) in breast cancer: evaluating fear of recurrence (FOR) as a mediator of psychological and physical symptoms in a randomized control trial (RCT). J Behav Med. 2014;37:185–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Fredrickson BL. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Am. Psychol. 2001;56:218–26.Google Scholar
- 34.Jean-Pierre P, Winters PC, Ahles T A., Antoni M, Armstrong FD, Penedo F, et al. Prevalence of self-reported memory problems in adult cancer survivors: a national cross-sectional study. J. Oncol. Pract. 2011;8:30–4.Google Scholar
- 40.Andersen SR, Würtzen H, Steding-Jessen M, Christensen J, Andersen KK, Flyger H, et al. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on sleep quality: results of a randomized trial among Danish breast cancer patients. Acta Oncol. (Madr). 2013;52:336–344.Google Scholar
- 41.Lengacher CA, Reich RR, Paterson CL, Jim HS, Ramesar S, Alinat CB, et al. The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on objective and subjective sleep parameters in women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Psychooncology. 2014;432:424–32.Google Scholar
- 42.Würtzen H, Dalton SO, Christensen J, Andersen KK, Elsass P, Flyger HL, et al. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on somatic symptoms, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing in women with breast cancer: results of a randomized controlled trial. Acta Oncol. (Madr). 2015;54:712–719.Google Scholar
- 43.Garland SN, Carlson LE, Stephens AJ, Antle MC, Samuels C, Campbell TS. Mindfulness-based stress reduction compared with cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of insomnia comorbid with cancer: a randomized, partially blinded, noninferiority trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:449–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 50.Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: The next generation. Cell. Elsevier Inc.; 2011;144:646–674.Google Scholar
- 52.Creswell JD, Irwin MR, Burklund LJ, Lieberman MD, Arevalo JMG, Ma J, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction training reduces loneliness and pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults: a small randomized controlled trial. Brain. Behav. Immun. Elsevier Inc.; 2012;26:1095–1101.Google Scholar
- 62.Garland EL, Gaylord SA, Fredrickson BL. Positive reappraisal mediates the stress-reductive effects of mindfulness: an upward spiral process. Mindfulness (N. Y). 2011;2:59–67.Google Scholar
- 65.Schellekens MPJ, Tamagawa R, Labelle LE, Speca M, Stephen J, Drysdale E, et al. Mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR) versus supportive expressive group therapy (SET) for distressed breast cancer survivors: evaluating mindfulness and social support as mediators. J Behav Med. 2017;40:414–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 70.Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Balderson BH, Cook AJ, Anderson ML, Hawkes RJ, et al. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction vs cognitive behavioral therapy or usual care on back pain and functional limitations in adults with chronic low back pain. JAMA. 2016;315:1240.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 73.Wurtzen H, Dalton SO, Andersen KK, Elsass P, Flyger HL, Sumbundu A, et al. Who participates in a randomized trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) after breast cancer? A study of factors associated with enrollment among Danish breast cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2013;22:1180–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 74.Zautra AJ, Davis MC, Reich JW, Nicassario P, Tennen H, Finan P, et al. Comparison of cognitive behavioral and mindfulness meditation interventions on adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis for patients with and without history of recurrent depression. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76:408–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 75.Kuyken W, Hayes R, Barrett B, Byng R, Dalgleish T, Kessler D, et al. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015;386:63–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar