Current Breast Cancer Reports

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 7–13 | Cite as

Mindfulness Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors: Current Findings and Future Directions

  • Marcie D. Haydon
  • Chloe C. Boyle
  • Julienne E. Bower
Psycho-Oncology and Supportive Care (E Shinn and C Fagundes, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Psycho-Oncology and Supportive Care


Purpose of review

The goal of this review is to provide an overview of current findings on mindfulness interventions (MIs) for use with breast cancer survivors. We highlight new research and identify several theoretical and conceptual issues worthy of further consideration.

Recent findings

To date, randomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of MIs in mitigating adverse psychological, behavioral, and biological outcomes in breast cancer survivors, at least in the short term and in comparison to usual care or wait list controls. Research is now moving towards evaluating the effectiveness of MIs, determining whether MIs produce lasting benefits, and identifying mechanisms of action.


Preliminary research supports the feasibility and efficacy of MIs for use with breast cancer survivors. There are gaps in our understanding, however, of how and for whom MIs are most effective. Future research to enhance current methodologies is warranted.


Breast cancer Cancer survivorship Mindfulness Mindfulness-based interventions 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Smalley SL, Winston D. Fully present: The science, art, and practice of mindfulness. Cambridge, Mass.: De Capo` Lifelong; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grossman P, Niemann L, Schmidt S, Walach H. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res. 2004;57:35–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shennan C, Payne S, Fenlon D. What is the evidence for the use of mindfulness-based interventions in cancer care? A review Psychooncology. 2011;20:681–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ledesma D, Kumano H. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cancer: a meta-analysis. Psychooncology. 2009;18:571–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boon HS, Olatunde F, Zick SM. Trends in complementary/alternative medicine use by breast cancer survivors: comparing survey data from 1998 and 2005. BMC Womens Health. 2007;7:4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eyles C, Leydon GM, Hoffman CJ, Copson ER, Prescott P, Chorozoglou M, et al. Mindfulness for the self-management of fatigue, anxiety, and depression in women with metastatic breast cancer. Integr Cancer Ther. 2015;14:42–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoffman CJ, Ersser SJ, Hopkinson JB. Mindfulness-based stress reduction in breast cancer: a qualitative analysis. Complement Ther Clin Pract Elsevier Ltd. 2012;18:221–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carlson LE, Speca M. Mindfulness-based cancer recovery: a step-by-step MBSR approach to help you cope with treatment and reclaim your life. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.; 2011.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Santorelli SF. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR): standards of practice [internet]. 2014. Available from:
  10. 10.
    UCLA Mindful Awareness Research Center. MAPs Classes [Internet]. 2017. Available from:
  11. 11.
    Segal ZV, Williams JMG, Teasdale JD. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press. 2002;Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lengacher CA, Reich RR, Ramesar S, Alinat CB, Moscoso M, Cousin L, et al. Feasibility of the mobile mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer (mMBSR(BC)) program for symptom improvement among breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 2017:1–8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zernicke KA, Campbell TS, Speca M, Ruff KMC, Flowers S, Tamagawa R, et al. The eCALM trial: eTherapy for cancer applying mindfulness. Exploratory analyses of the associations between online mindfulness-based cancer recovery participation and changes in mood, stress symptoms, mindfulness, posttraumatic growth, and spirituality. Mindfulness (N. Y). Mindfulness; 2016;7:1071–1081.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Visser A, de Witte T, Speckens AE, Prins JB, van Laarhoven HW. A qualitative analysis of experiences of patients with metastatic breast cancer participating in a mindfulness-based intervention. Palliat Med. 2015;29:182–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bower JE. Behavioral symptoms in patients with breast cancer and survivors. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:768–77.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ganz PA, Rowland JH, Desmond K, Meyerowitz BE, Wyatt GE. Life after breast cancer: understanding women’s health-related quality of life and sexual functioning. J Cinical Oncol. 1998;16:501–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stanton AL, Wiley JF, Krull JL, Crespi CM, Hammen C, Allen JJB, et al. Depressive episodes, symptoms, and trajectories in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015;154:105–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ganz PA, Desmond KA, Leedham B, Rowland JH, Meyerowitz BE, Belin TR. Quality of life in long-term, disease-free survivors of breast cancer: a follow-up study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:39–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bower JE, Ganz PA, Desmond KA, Bernaards C, Rowland JH, Meyerowitz BE, et al. Fatigue in long-term breast carcinoma survivors: a longitudinal investigation. Cancer. 2006;106:751–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bower JE, Crosswell AD, Stanton AL, Crespi CM, Winston D, Arevalo J, et al. Mindfulness meditation for younger breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer. 2015;121:1231–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carlson LE, Doll R, Stephen J, Faris P, Tamagawa R, Drysdale E, et al. Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based cancer recovery versus supportive expressive group therapy for distressed survivors of breast cancer (MINDSET). J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:3119–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hoffman CJ, Ersser SJ, Hopkinson JB, Nicholls PG, Harrington JE, Thomas PW. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in mood, breast- and endocrine-related quality of life, and well-being in stage 0 to III breast cancer: A randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1335–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Würtzen H, Dalton SO, Elsass P, Sumbundu AD, Steding-Jensen M, Karlsen RV, et al. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression: results of a randomised controlled trial among 336 Danish women treated for stage I-III breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:1365–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lengacher CA, Reich RR, Paterson CL, Ramesar S, Park JY, Alinat C, et al. Examination of broad symptom improvement resulting from mindfulness-based stress reduction in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:2827–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Henderson VP, Clemow L, Massion AO, Hurley TG, Druker S, Hébert JR. The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on psychosocial outcomes and quality of life in early-stage breast cancer patients: A randomized trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;131:99–109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lengacher CA, Shelton MM, Reich RR, Barta MK, Johnson-Mallard V, Moscoso MS, et al. Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR(BC)) in breast cancer: evaluating fear of recurrence (FOR) as a mediator of psychological and physical symptoms in a randomized control trial (RCT). J Behav Med. 2014;37:185–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Speca M, Carlson LE, Goodey E, Angen M. A randomized, wait-list controlled clinical trial: The effect of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients. Psychosom Med. 2000;62:613–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Witt AA, Oh D. The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010;78:169–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Khoury B, Lecomte T, Fortin G, Masse M, Therien P, Bouchard V, et al. Mindfulness-based therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev Elsevier Ltd. 2013;33:763–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Johannsen M, O’Connor M, O’Toole MS, Jensen AB, Højris I, Zachariae R. Efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on late post-treatment pain in women treated for primary breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:3390–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Boyle CC, Stanton AL, Ganz PA, Crespi CM, Bower JE. Improvements in emotion regulation following mindfulness meditation: effects on depressive symptoms and perceived stress in younger breast cancer survivors. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2017;85:397–402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fredrickson BL. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Am. Psychol. 2001;56:218–26.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bower JE, Ganz PA, Desmond KA, Rowland JH, Meyerowitz BE, Belin TR. Fatigue in breast cancer survivors: occurrence, correlates, and impact on quality of life. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:743–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jean-Pierre P, Winters PC, Ahles T A., Antoni M, Armstrong FD, Penedo F, et al. Prevalence of self-reported memory problems in adult cancer survivors: a national cross-sectional study. J. Oncol. Pract. 2011;8:30–4.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Davidson JR, MacLean AW, Brundage MD, Schulze K. Sleep disturbance in cancer patients. Soc Sci Med. 2002;54:1309–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Glare PA, Davies PS, Finlay E, Gulati A, Lemanne D, Moryl N, et al. Pain in cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:1739–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ahles TA, Saykin AJ, Furstenberg CT, Cole B, Mott LA, Skalla K, et al. Neuropsychologic impact of standard-dose systemic chemotherapy in long- term survivors of breast cancer and lymphoma. J ClinOncol. 2002;20:485–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stein KD, Syrjala KL, Andrykowski MA. Physical and psychological long-term and late effects of cancer. Cancer. 2008;112:2577–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Reich RR, Lengacher CA, Alinat CB, Kip KE, Paterson C, Ramesar S, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction in post-treatment breast cancer patients: immediate and sustained effects across multiple symptom clusters. J Pain Symptom Manage Elsevier Inc. 2017;53:85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Andersen SR, Würtzen H, Steding-Jessen M, Christensen J, Andersen KK, Flyger H, et al. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on sleep quality: results of a randomized trial among Danish breast cancer patients. Acta Oncol. (Madr). 2013;52:336–344.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lengacher CA, Reich RR, Paterson CL, Jim HS, Ramesar S, Alinat CB, et al. The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on objective and subjective sleep parameters in women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Psychooncology. 2014;432:424–32.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Würtzen H, Dalton SO, Christensen J, Andersen KK, Elsass P, Flyger HL, et al. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on somatic symptoms, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing in women with breast cancer: results of a randomized controlled trial. Acta Oncol. (Madr). 2015;54:712–719.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Garland SN, Carlson LE, Stephens AJ, Antle MC, Samuels C, Campbell TS. Mindfulness-based stress reduction compared with cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of insomnia comorbid with cancer: a randomized, partially blinded, noninferiority trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:449–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lengacher CA, Johnson-Mallard V, Post-White J, Moscoso M, Jacobsen PB, Klein TW, et al. Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for survivors of breast cancer. Psychooncology. 2009;18:1261–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Johns SA, Brown LF, Beck-Coon K, Monahan PO, Tong Y, Kroenke K. Randomized controlled pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction for persistently fatigued cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 2015;24:885–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bower JE, Irwin MR. Mind–body therapies and control of inflammatory biology: a descriptive review. Brain Behav Immun. 2016;51:1–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Creswell JD, Lindsay EK. How does mindfulness training affect health? A mindfulness stress buffering account. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2014;23:401–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Crosswell AD, Moreno PI, Raposa EB, Motivala SJ, Stanton AL, Ganz PA, et al. Effects of mindfulness training on emotional and physiologic recovery from induced negative affect. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2017;86:78–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lengacher CA, Kip KE, Post-White J, Fitzgerald S, Newton C, Barta M, et al. Lymphocyte recovery after breast cancer treatment and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) therapy. Biol Res Nurs. 2013;15:37–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: The next generation. Cell. Elsevier Inc.; 2011;144:646–674.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Miller AH, Ancoli-Israel S, Bower JE, Capuron L, Irwin MR. Neuroendocrine-immune mechanisms of behavioral comorbidities in patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:971–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Creswell JD, Irwin MR, Burklund LJ, Lieberman MD, Arevalo JMG, Ma J, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction training reduces loneliness and pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults: a small randomized controlled trial. Brain. Behav. Immun. Elsevier Inc.; 2012;26:1095–1101.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Black DS, Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Ji E, Crabb Breen E, Motivala SJ. Tai chi meditation effects on nuclear factor-κB signaling in lonely older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom. 2014;83:315–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rowland JH, Bellizzi KM. Cancer survivorship issues: life after treatment and implications for an aging population. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:2662–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lengacher CA, Reich RR, Kip KE, Barta M, Ramesar S, Paterson CL, et al. Influence of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on telomerase activity in women with breast cancer (BC). Biol. Res. Nurs. 2014;16:438–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Carlson LE, Beattie TL, Giese-Davis J, Faris P, Tamagawa R, Fick LJ, et al. Mindfulness-based cancer recovery and supportive-expressive therapy maintain telomere length relative to controls in distressed breast cancer survivors. Cancer. 2015;121:476–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shapiro SL, Carlson LE, Astin JA, Freedman B. Mechanisms of mindfulness. J Clin Psychol. 2006;62:373–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hölzel BK, Lazar SW, Gard T, Schuman-Olivier Z, Vago DR, Ott U. How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2011;6:537–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stanton AL, Luecken LJ, MacKinnon DP, Thompson EH. Mechanisms in psychosocial interventions for adults living with cancer: opportunity for integration of theory, research, and practice. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2013;81:318–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brown KW, Ryan RM, Creswell JD. Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychol Inq. 2007;18:211–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Baer RA, Smith GT, Hopkins J, Krietemeyer J, Toney L. Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment. 2006;13:27–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Garland EL, Gaylord SA, Fredrickson BL. Positive reappraisal mediates the stress-reductive effects of mindfulness: an upward spiral process. Mindfulness (N. Y). 2011;2:59–67.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gu J, Strauss C, Bond R, Cavanagh K. How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clin Psychol Rev. 2015;37:1–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bränström R, Kvillemo P, Moskowitz JT. A randomized study of the effects of mindfulness training on psychological well-being and symptoms of stress in patients treated for cancer at 6-month follow-up. Int J Behav Med. 2012;19:535–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schellekens MPJ, Tamagawa R, Labelle LE, Speca M, Stephen J, Drysdale E, et al. Mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR) versus supportive expressive group therapy (SET) for distressed breast cancer survivors: evaluating mindfulness and social support as mediators. J Behav Med. 2017;40:414–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pradhan EK, Baumgarten M, Langenberg P, Handwerger B, Gilpin AK, Magyari T, et al. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57:1134–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Imel Z, Baldwin S, Bonus K, MacCoon D. Beyond the individual: group effects in mindfulness-based stress reduction. Psychother Res. 2008;18:735–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Creswell JD, Taren AA, Lindsay EK, Greco CM, Gianaros PJ, Fairgrieve A, et al. Alterations in resting-state functional connectivity link mindfulness meditation with reduced interleukin-6: a randomized controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry Elsevier. 2016;80:53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Davidson RJ. Empirical explorations of mindfulness: conceptual and methodological conundrums. Emotion. 2010;10:8–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Balderson BH, Cook AJ, Anderson ML, Hawkes RJ, et al. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction vs cognitive behavioral therapy or usual care on back pain and functional limitations in adults with chronic low back pain. JAMA. 2016;315:1240.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Avis NE, Levine B, Naughton MJ, Case DL, Naftalis E, Van Zee KJ. Explaining age-related differences in depression following breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;136:581–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ganz PA, Greendale GA, Petersen L, Kahn B, Bower JE. Breast cancer in younger women: reproductive and late health effects of treatment. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:4184–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wurtzen H, Dalton SO, Andersen KK, Elsass P, Flyger HL, Sumbundu A, et al. Who participates in a randomized trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) after breast cancer? A study of factors associated with enrollment among Danish breast cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2013;22:1180–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zautra AJ, Davis MC, Reich JW, Nicassario P, Tennen H, Finan P, et al. Comparison of cognitive behavioral and mindfulness meditation interventions on adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis for patients with and without history of recurrent depression. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76:408–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kuyken W, Hayes R, Barrett B, Byng R, Dalgleish T, Kessler D, et al. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015;386:63–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Williams JMG, Crane C, Barnhofer T, Brennan K, Duggan DS, Fennell MJV, et al. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for preventing relapse in recurrent depression: a randomized dismantling trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2014;82:275–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Le H-N, Perry DF, Stuart EA. Randomized controlled trial of a preventive intervention for perinatal depression in high-risk Latinas. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011;79:135–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yates BC, Anderson T, Hertzog M, Ott C, Williams J. Effectiveness of follow-up booster sessions in improving physical status after cardiac rehabilitation: health, behavioral, and clinical outcomes. Appl Nurs Res. 2005;18:59–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ashby WA, Wilson GT. Behavior therapy for obesity: booster sessions and long-term maintenance of weight loss. Behav Res Ther. 1977;15:451–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mosher CE, Johnson C, Dickler M, Norton L, Massie MJ, DuHamel K. Living with metastatic breast cancer: a qualitative analysis of physical, psychological, and social sequelae. Breast J. 2013;19:285–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zainal NZ, Booth S. Huppert F a. The efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction on mental health of breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis psychooncology. 2013;22(7):1457–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcie D. Haydon
    • 1
  • Chloe C. Boyle
    • 1
  • Julienne E. Bower
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)Los AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUniversity of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)Los AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer CenterUniversity of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)Los AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Cousins Center for PsychoneuroimmunologyUniversity of California Los Angeles (UCLA)Los AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations