The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 627–631 | Cite as

Status of Geriatrics in 22 Countries

  • Kaisu H. Pitkälä
  • F. C. Martin
  • S. Maggi
  • S. K. Jyväkorpi
  • T. E. Strandberg
Article

Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this article is to describe the current status of geriatrics and position of geriatricians in 22 countries of three continents, and to portray their attitudes towards and resources allocated to geriatrics.

Methods

An electronic survey was delivered to a convenience sample of 22 geriatricians in leading positions of their countries.

Results

The time required in post graduation specialist training to become a geriatrician varied from one year (subspecialty in the USA) to six years (independent specialty in Belgium). The number in the population aged 80+ per geriatrician varied from 450 (Austria) to 25,000 (Turkey). Of respondents, 55% reported that geriatrics is not a popular specialty in their country. Acute geriatric wards, rehabilitation and outpatient clinics were the most common working places for geriatricians. Nearly half of the respondents had an opinion that older patients who were acutely ill, were receiving subacute rehabilitation or had dementia should be cared for by geriatricians whereas half of the respondents would place geriatricians also in charge of nursing home and orthogeriatric patients. The biggest problems affecting older people’s clinical care in their countries were: lack of geriatric knowledge, lack of geriatricians, and attitudes towards older people. Half of respondents thought that older people’s health promotion and comprehensive geriatric assessment were not well implemented in their countries, although a majority felt that they could promote good geriatric care in their present position as a geriatrician.

Conclusion

The position of geriatric, geriatricians’ training and contents of work has wide international variety.

Key words

Status of geriatrics training position of geriatricians specialisation 

References

  1. 1.
    Duursma S, Castleden M, Cherubini A, et al. Position statement on geriatric medicine and the provision of health care services to older people. J Nutr Health Aging 2004; 8:190–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Geriatrics Society Core Writing Group of the Task Force on the Future Geriatric Medicine. Caring for older Americans: The future of geriatric medicine. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:S245-S56.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cruz-Jentoft A, Franco A, Sommer P, Baeyens JP, Jankowska E, Maggi A, et al. Silver paper: the future of health promotion and preventive actions, basic research, and clinical aspects of age-related disease-a report of the European Summit on Age-Related Disease. Aging Clin Exp Res 2009;21: 376–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Morley J. A brief history of geriatrics. J Gerontol Med Sci 2004;59A:1132–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crome P. Geriatrics in Europe, in H. M. Fillitt, K. Rockwood, and K. Woodhouse (ed). Brocklehurst’s Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology (Seventh Edition). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2010. pp. 997–1004.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grimley Evans, J. Geriatric medicine: a brief history. BMJ 1997;315:1075–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hogan DB. Geriatrics in North America, in H.M. Fillitt, K. Rockwood, and K. Woodhouse (ed). Brocklehurst’s Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology (Seventh Edition). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2010. pp. 1005–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pitkala K, Gladman J, Connolly M. Models of health care for older people. In Michel JP, Beattie BL, Martin FC, Walston JD (Eds). Oxford textbook of geriatric medicine. Third edition. Oxford University Press. 2018 (in press)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Michel JP, Huber P, Cruz-Jentoft AJ. Europe-wide survey of teaching in geriatric medicine. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008;56:1536–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kolb G, Anderen-Ranberg K, Cruz-Jentoft A, O’Neill D, Topinkova E, Michel JP. Geriatric care in Europe–the EUGMS Survey part 1: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom. Eur Geriatr Med 2011;2:290–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ekdahl A, Fiorini A, MAggi S, Pils K, Michel JP, Kolb G. Geriatric care in Europe -the EUGMS survey part II: malta, Sweden and Austria. Eur Geriatr Med 2012;3:388–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rolland Y, Mathieu C, Piau C, Cayla F, Bouget C, Vellas B, de Souto Barreto P. Improving the Quality of Care of Long-Stay Nursing Home Residents in France. J Am Geriatr Soc 2016;64:193–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schols J,. Crebolder HF, van Weel C. Nursing and nursing home physician: The Dutch experience. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2004;5:207–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Löppönen M, Heinonen P, Jartti L, Halminen M, Rajala T, Viitanen M, Pitkala K, Strandberg TE. Geriatricians feel growing external appreciation of their work. Survey among Finnish geriatricians in 2013. Eur Ger Med 2015;6:570–2.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bernabei R, Venturiero V, Tarsitani P, Gambassi G. The comprehensive geriatric assessment: when, where, how. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2000;33:45–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baztán, J.J., Suárez-García, F.M., López-Arrieta, J., Rodríguez-Mañas, L., Rodríguez-Artalejo, F. (2009) Effectiveness of acute geriatric units on functional decline, living at home, and case fatality among older patients admitted to hospital for acute medical disorders: meta-analysis. BMJ 2009;338:b50CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ellis, G., Whitehead, M.A,, Robinson, D., O’Neill, D., Langhorne, P. (2011). Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older adults admitted to hospital: metaanalysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ;343:d6553CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stuck AE, Siu AL, Wieland GD, Adams J, Rubenstein LZ. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Lancet 1993;342:1032–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reiter R, Diraoui S, Van Den Noortgate N, Cruz-Jentoft A on behalf of EAMA. How to become a geriatrician in different European Countries. Eur Geriatr Med 2014;5:347–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Morley JE, Adams EV. Rapid Geriatric Assessment. JAMDA 2015;16:808–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pacala JT, Ouslander JG, Saliba D. Robert L. Kane, MD (1940-2017). J Am Geriatr Soc 2017;65:1656–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Libow LS. The first geriatric residency-fellowship in the United States. J Gerontol 2004;59A:1165–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Strandberg TE, Koistinen P, Antikainen R, Kynsilehto EA, Määttä K, NIemelä M, Seppänen ML, Viramo P, Pitkälä K, O’Neill D. Increased work-satisfaction amongst geriatricians in Finland -an encouragement for further development of the specialty? Survey among geriatricians in Finland in 2008. Eur Geriar Med 2010;1:73–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pitkala K, Strandberg T, Hartikainen S. Geriatricians are satisfied with their work. Findings from 2001 survey (In Finnish). Suom Lääkäril 2002;45:4615–7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaisu H. Pitkälä
    • 1
    • 6
  • F. C. Martin
    • 2
  • S. Maggi
    • 3
  • S. K. Jyväkorpi
    • 1
  • T. E. Strandberg
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.University of Helsinki, Department of General Pratice and Primary Health Care and Helsinki University HospitalHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.King’s College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.CNR Aging Program-INPaduaItaly
  4. 4.University of Oulu, Center for Life Course Health ResearchOuluFinland
  5. 5.University of Helsinki, Clinicum, and Helsinki University HospitalHelsinkiFinland
  6. 6.Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Practice and Primary Health CareUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations