Cell Wall Contents of Probiotics (Lactobacillus species) Protect Against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Murine Colitis by Limiting Immuno-inflammation and Oxidative Stress

Abstract

Currently, there are no effective therapeutic agents to limit intestinal mucosal damage associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Based on several clinical studies, probiotics have emerged as a possible novel therapeutic strategy for IBD; however, their possible mechanisms are still poorly understood. Although probiotics in murine and human improve disease severity, very little is known about the specific contribution of cell wall contents of probiotics in IBD. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of cell wall contents of three Lactobacillus species in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced colitis rats. LPS-sensitized rats were rendered colitic by colonic instillation of LPS (500 µg/rat) for 14 consecutive days. Concurrently, cell wall contents isolated from 106 CFU of L. casei (LC), L. acidophilus (LA), and L. rhamnosus (LA) was given subcutaneously for 21 days, considering sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) as standard. The severity of colitis was assessed by body weight loss, food intake, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, colon weight/length, spleen weight, and histological analysis. Colonic inflammatory markers (myeloperoxidase activity, C-reactive protein, and pro-inflammatory cytokines) and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide) were also assayed. Cell wall contents of LC, LA, and LR significantly ameliorated the severity of colitis by reducing body weight loss and diarrhea and bleeding incidence, improving food intake, colon weight/length, spleen weight, and microscopic damage to the colonic mucosa. The treatment also reduced levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and boosted anti-oxidant molecule. In conclusion, cell wall contents of LC, LA, and LR attenuate LPS-induced colitis by modulating immuno-inflammation and oxidative stress.

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Funding

This work was supported by K. B. Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

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Correspondence to Mehulkumar Ramanlal Chorawala.

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Chorawala, M.R., Chauhan, S., Patel, R. et al. Cell Wall Contents of Probiotics (Lactobacillus species) Protect Against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Murine Colitis by Limiting Immuno-inflammation and Oxidative Stress. Probiotics & Antimicro. Prot. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12602-020-09738-4

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Keywords

  • Probiotics
  • Lactobacillus species
  • Immuno-inflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • IBD