In Vivo Implications of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri LR6 on the Gut and Immunological Parameters as an Adjuvant Against Protein Energy Malnutrition

  • Sheenam GargEmail author
  • Tejinder P. Singh
  • Ravinder K. Malik


The present study investigated the impact of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri LR6 on the gut and systemic immunity using protein energy malnourished (PEM) murine model. Thirty male Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups: control (C), malnourished (M), probiotic fermented milk (PFM), skim milk (SM), and bacterial suspension (BS) with six mice per group. Group C was fed with conventional diet throughout the study while the other groups were fed with protein calorie restricted diet until the development of malnutrition. After development of malnutrition, group M was continued with the restricted diet while other groups were fed with re-nourished diet supplemented with PFM, SM, and BS for 1 week, respectively. Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and different histological, microbiological, and immunological parameters were studied. Probiotics feeding in PEM model as fermented product or bacterial suspension improved the intestinal health in terms of intact morphology of colonic crypts, normal goblet cells, and intact lamina propria with no inflammation in large intestine, absence of fibrosis, and no inflammation in spleen. The number of secretory IgA+ cells was significantly higher in group PFM and BS. Also, increase in the phagocytic percentage of the macrophages and bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs) were observed in the PFM and BS group in comparison to the group M. In comparison to the group M and SM, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and Firmicutes counts were significantly higher in the group PFM and BS. This study concludes that probiotic supplementation to re-nutrition diet could emerge as wonder therapeutics against PEM.


Probiotics Protein energy malnutrition Lactobacillus reuteri Gut microbiota changes Immunocytochemistry 



We thank Dr. Suman Kapila, Dr. Sachinandan De, and Dr. S. K. Tomar for the technical assistance in their respective laboratories.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheenam Garg
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tejinder P. Singh
    • 2
  • Ravinder K. Malik
    • 1
  1. 1.Dairy Microbiology DivisionNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia
  2. 2.Dairy Microbiology Department, College of Dairy Science and TechnologyLala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal ScienceHisarIndia

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