Development of Whey Protein Concentrate-Pectin-Alginate Based Delivery System to Improve Survival of B. longum BL-05 in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions

  • Iqra Yasmin
  • Muhammad Saeed
  • Imran Pasha
  • Muhammad Anjum Zia


Bifidobacterium longum BL-05 encapsulated beads were developed by using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin (PE) as encapsulating material through extrusion/ionic gelation technique with the objective to improve survival of probiotics in harsh gastrointestinal conditions. B. longum BL-05 was grown in MRS (de man rogosa and sharpe) broth, centrifuged and mixed with polymeric gel solution. Bead formulations E4 (2.5% WPC + 1.5% PE) and E5 (2% PE) showed the highest value for encapsulation efficiency, size, and textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness) due to increasing PE concentration. The survivability and viability of free and encapsulated B. longum BL-05 was assessed through their resistance to simulated gastric juice (SGJ), tolerance to bile salt, release profile in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and storage stability during 28 days at 4 °C. The microencapsulation provided protection to B. longum BL-05 and encapsulated cells were exhibited significant (p < 0.05) resistance to SGJ and SIF as compared to free cells. Bead formulations E3 (5.0% WPC + 1.0% PE) and E4 (2.5% WPC + 1.5% PE) exhibited more resistance to SGJ (at pH 2 for 2 h) and at 2% bile salt solution but comparatively slow release as compared to other bead formulations. Free cells lost their viability when stored at 4 °C after 28 days but microencapsulated cells demonstrated promising results during storage and viable cell count was > 107 CFU/g. This study revealed that extrusion using WPC and PE as encapsulating material could be considered as one of the novel technologies for protection and effective delivery of probiotics.


Probiotics Encapsulation B. Longum Whey protein concentrate Pectin 



The authors are thankful to the funding provided by the Higher Education Commission, Pakistan, through the International Research Support Initiative Program (IRSIP) to carry out this work in the Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA. The authors are grateful to Dr. Changmou Xu for his support and valued help throughout the project and acknowledge the permission to use the laboratory equipment and facilities in Dr. Robert W. Hutkins Laboratory. The authors also would like to thanks, Dr. Y. Joe Zhou and Jules Russ at Microscopy Core Research Facility, Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA, for their help in scanning electron microscope imaging.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iqra Yasmin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muhammad Saeed
    • 2
  • Imran Pasha
    • 2
  • Muhammad Anjum Zia
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyUniversity of NebraskaLincolnUSA
  2. 2.National Institute of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

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