Development of Whey Protein Concentrate-Pectin-Alginate Based Delivery System to Improve Survival of B. longum BL-05 in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions
- 136 Downloads
Bifidobacterium longum BL-05 encapsulated beads were developed by using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin (PE) as encapsulating material through extrusion/ionic gelation technique with the objective to improve survival of probiotics in harsh gastrointestinal conditions. B. longum BL-05 was grown in MRS (de man rogosa and sharpe) broth, centrifuged and mixed with polymeric gel solution. Bead formulations E4 (2.5% WPC + 1.5% PE) and E5 (2% PE) showed the highest value for encapsulation efficiency, size, and textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness) due to increasing PE concentration. The survivability and viability of free and encapsulated B. longum BL-05 was assessed through their resistance to simulated gastric juice (SGJ), tolerance to bile salt, release profile in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and storage stability during 28 days at 4 °C. The microencapsulation provided protection to B. longum BL-05 and encapsulated cells were exhibited significant (p < 0.05) resistance to SGJ and SIF as compared to free cells. Bead formulations E3 (5.0% WPC + 1.0% PE) and E4 (2.5% WPC + 1.5% PE) exhibited more resistance to SGJ (at pH 2 for 2 h) and at 2% bile salt solution but comparatively slow release as compared to other bead formulations. Free cells lost their viability when stored at 4 °C after 28 days but microencapsulated cells demonstrated promising results during storage and viable cell count was > 107 CFU/g. This study revealed that extrusion using WPC and PE as encapsulating material could be considered as one of the novel technologies for protection and effective delivery of probiotics.
KeywordsProbiotics Encapsulation B. Longum Whey protein concentrate Pectin
The authors are thankful to the funding provided by the Higher Education Commission, Pakistan, through the International Research Support Initiative Program (IRSIP) to carry out this work in the Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA. The authors are grateful to Dr. Changmou Xu for his support and valued help throughout the project and acknowledge the permission to use the laboratory equipment and facilities in Dr. Robert W. Hutkins Laboratory. The authors also would like to thanks, Dr. Y. Joe Zhou and Jules Russ at Microscopy Core Research Facility, Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA, for their help in scanning electron microscope imaging.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Fareez IM, Lim SM, Zulkefli NAA, Mishra RK, Ramasamy K (2017) Cellulose derivatives enhanced stability of alginate-based beads loaded with lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 against low pH, high temperature and prolonged storage. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins:1–15Google Scholar
- 2.Mokhtari S, Khomeiri M, Jafari SM, Maghsoudlou Y, Ghorbani M (2017) Descriptive analysis of bacterial profile, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of grape juice containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall-coated probiotic microcapsules during storage. Int J Food Sci Technol 52(4):1042–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.De Castro-Cislaghi FP, Carina Dos Reis ES, Fritzen-Freire CB, Lorenz JG, Sant’Anna ES (2012) Bifidobacterium Bb-12 microencapsulated by spray drying with whey: survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, tolerance to NaCl, and viability during storage. J Food Eng 113(2):186–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Muthukumarasamy P, Allan-Wojtas P, Holley RA (2006) Stability of Lactobacillus reuteri in different types of microcapsules. J Food Sci 71(1)Google Scholar
- 19.Holkem AT, Raddatz GC, Nunes GL, Cichoski AJ, Jacob-Lopes E, Grosso CRF, de Menezes CR (2016) Development and characterization of alginate microcapsules containing Bifidobacterium BB-12 produced by emulsification/internal gelation followed by freeze drying. LWT-Food Sci Technol 71:302–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Atia A, Gomaa A, Fernandez B, Subirade M, Fliss I (2017) Study and understanding behavior of alginate-inulin synbiotics beads for protection and delivery of antimicrobial-producing probiotics in colonic simulated conditions. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins:1–11Google Scholar
- 28.Jantzen M, Göpel A, Beermann C (2013) Direct spray drying and microencapsulation of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri from slurry fermentation with whey. J Appl Microbiol 115(4):1029–1036Google Scholar
- 34.Yao M, Wu J, Li B, Xiao H, McClements DJ, Li L (2017) Microencapsulation of lactobacillus salivarious Li01 for enhanced storage viability and targeted delivery to gut microbiota. Food HydrocollGoogle Scholar
- 36.Rodrigues D, Sousa S, Rocha-Santos T, Silva J, Lobo JS, Costa P, Amaral M, Pintado M, Gomes A, Malcata F (2011) Influence of L-cysteine, oxygen and relative humidity upon survival throughout storage of probiotic bacteria in whey protein-based microcapsules. Int Dairy J 21(11):869–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar