Study on the Quality of Groundwater and its Impact on Human Health: A Case Study from Murshidabad District, West Bengal

Abstract

Murshidabad is an alluvial terrain in the Gangetic plains of West Bengal. Water is mainly stored in the pore spaces of the formation and thus the yield is quite good from the aquifers of this region. But the suitability of this water for human use not only depends on quantity of groundwater available but also to a great extent on the chemical quality of groundwater. which has direct effect on human health. An extensive study on the groundwater condition of Lalbagh Municipality area in Murshidabad district, West Bengal, was carried out. There is huge extraction of groundwater from the alluvial aquifers of the region for irrigation and domestic purposes. In this study, depth to water level and water quality is assessed in twenty-three locations on the basis of pH, EC (electrical conductivity), TDS (Total dissolved solids), arsenic (As), free iron (Fe), major cations and anions. The hydrogeological study along with geochemical aspects shows presence of different chemical components beyond permissible limits in various locations. Occurrence of high levels of As and Fe with respect to normal standard can be related to the prevalence of diseases like melanosis, liver diseases, skin cancer etc. among the local population of the study area.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Acharyya, S.K. (2005) Arsenic levels in groundwater from Quaternary alluvium in the Ganga Plain and the Bengal Basin, Indian subcontinent: insights into influence of stratigraphy. Gondwana. Res., v.8(1), pp.55–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Acharyya, S.K., Lahiri, S., Raymahashay, B.C. and Bhowmik, A. (2000) Arsenic toxicity of groundwater in parts of the Bengal basin in India and Bangladesh: the role of Quaternary stratigraphy and Holocene sea-level fluctuation. Environ. Geol., v.39(10), pp.1127–1137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Adimalla, N. (2019) Groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes and potential health risks assessment: a case study from semi-arid region of South India. Expo. Health, v.11(2), pp.109–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Adimalla, N. and Taloor, A.K. (2020) Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater quality in the hard rock terrain of South India using Geographic Information System (GIS) and groundwater quality index (GWQI) techniques. Groundwater Sustain. Dev., v.10, pp.100288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Adimalla, N. and Venkatayogi, S. (2018) Geochemical characterization and evaluation of groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural utility in semi-arid region of Basara, Telangana State, South India. Appl. Water Sci., v.8(1), pp.44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ahmad, S., Umar, R. and Arshad, I. (2019) Groundwater Quality Appraisal and its Hydrogeochemical Characterization-Mathura City, Western Uttar Pradesh. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.94(6), pp.611–623.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. American Public Health Association (APHA), (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water; 20th edition, Washington.

  8. Anim-Gyampo, M., Anornu, G.K., Appiah-Adjei, E.K. and Agodzo, S.K. (2019) Quality and health risk assessment of shallow groundwater aquifers within the Atankwidi basin of Ghana. Groundwater Sustain. Dev., v.9, pp.100217.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Arnold, J.G., Williams, J.R., Nicks, A.D. and Sammons, N.B. (1990) SWRRB; a basin scale simulation model for soil and water resources management. Texas A&M Univ. Press, Drawer C, College Station, TX 77843. 252p.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Asoka, A., Gleeson, T., Wada, Y. and Mishra, V. (2017) Relative contribution of monsoon precipitation and pumping to changes in groundwater storage in India. Nature Geosci., v.10(2), pp.109–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bashir, N., Saeed, R., Afzaal, M., Ahmad, A., Muhammad, N., Iqbal, J., Khan, A., Maqbool, Y. and Hameed, S. (2020) Water quality assessment of lower Jhelum canal in Pakistan by using geographic information system (GIS). Groundwater Sustain. Dev., pp.100357.

  12. Bera, A., Mukhopadhyay, B.P. and Barua, S. (2020) Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Karha river basin, Maharashtra, India, using AHP and geospatial techniques. Arab. Jour. Geosci., v.13, pp.693

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bidhuri, S. and Khan, M.M.A. (2020) Assessment of Ground Water Quality of Central and Southeast Districts of NCT of Delhi. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.95(1), pp.95–103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Biswas, S., Mukhopadhyay, B.P. and Bera, A. (2020) Delineating groundwater potential zones of agriculture dominated landscapes using GIS based AHP techniques: a case study from Uttar Dinajpur district, West Bengal. Environ. Earth Sci., v.79, pp.302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bureau of Indian Standards, (2012) Indian Standard Drinking water-specification (Second Revision) Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), New Delhi.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Calabrese, E.J., Canada, A.T. and Sacco, C. (1985) Trace elements and public health. Annu. Rev. Publ. Health, v.6(1), pp.131–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Central Ground Water Board, (2016) Aquifer mapping and management plan in parts of Murshidabad district, West Bengal. CGWB, Eastern Region, Kolkata.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Chowdhury, T.R., Basu, G.K., Mandal, B.K., Biswas, B.K., Samanta, G., Chowdhury, U.K., Chanda, C.R., Lodh, D., Roy, S.L., Saha, K.C., Roy, S., Kabir, S., Quamruzzaman, Q. and Chakraborti, D. (1999) Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta. Nature, v.401(6753), pp.545–546.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Davis, S.N. and De Wiest, R.J. (1966) Hydrogeology, (No. 551.49 D3).

  20. El-Hoz, M., Mohsen, A. and Iaaly, A. (2014) Assessing groundwater quality in a coastal area using the GIS technique. Desalination Water Treat., v.52(10–12), pp.1967–1979.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Embaby, A. and Redwan, M. (2019) Sources and behavior of trace elements in groundwater in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Environ. Monit. Assess., v.191(11), pp.686.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Gaonkar, S.M., Karabasannavar, S.S., Patil, V.B., Kalashetty, M.B. and Kalashetty, B.M. (2019) Studies on Toxicity of Fluoride and Impact of Endemic Fluorosis from Groundwater Resources of Bagalkot District, Karnataka-Geospatial Information System Approach. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.93(1), pp.109–112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Gautam, S.K., Singh, A.K., Tripathi, J.K., Singh, S.K., Srivastava, P.K., Narsimlu, B. and Singh, P. (2016) Appraisal of surface and groundwater of the Subarnarekha River Basin, Jharkhand, India: using remote sensing, irrigation indices and statistical techniques. Geospatial Technol. Water Resour. Appl., pp.144–169.

  24. Halder, S. (2012) Seismic event in Murshidabad district: focusing through geo-environmental-historical views. Internat. Jour. Geol. Earth Environ. Sci., v.2(3), pp.119–129

    Google Scholar 

  25. Harada, M. (1995) Minamata disease: methylmercury poisoning in Japan caused by environmental pollution. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. v.25(1), pp.1–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hoque, M.A. and Butler, A.P. (2016) Medical hydrogeology of Asian deltas: status of groundwater toxicants and nutrients, and implications for human health. Internat. Jour. Env. Res. Pub. Health, v.13(1), pp.81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Jain, C.K., Bandyopadhyay, A. and Bhadra, A. (2010) Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Environ. Monit. Assess., v.166(1–4), pp.663–676.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Jasrotia, A.S., Bhagat, B.D., Kumar, A. and Kumar, R. (2013) Remote sensing and GIS approach for delineation of groundwater potential and groundwater quality zones of Western Doon Valley, Uttarakhand, India. Jour. Indian. Soc. Remote Sens., v.41, pp.365–377.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Jenks, G. F. (1967) The data model concept in statistical mapping. International yearbook of cartography, v.7, pp.186–190.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Jeyaseelan, A. (2018). Assessment of groundwater quality in south western part of Vaippar river basin Tamil Nadu India using GIS and water quality index [Doctoral dissertation].

  31. Jianmin, B., Yu, W. and Juan, Z. (2015) Arsenic and fluorine in groundwater in western Jilin Province, China: occurrence and health risk assessment. Natural Hazards, v.77, pp.1903–1914

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Jury, W.A. and Vaux Jr, H.J. (2007) The emerging global water crisis: managing scarcity and conflict between water users. Adv. Agron., v.95, pp.1–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Karim, M.M. (2000) Arsenic in groundwater and health problems in Bangladesh. Water Res., v.34(1), pp.304–310.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Khan, R. and Jhariya, D.C. (2017) Groundwater quality assessment for drinking purpose in Raipur City, Chhattisgarh using water quality index and geographic information system. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.90(1), pp.69–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Komatina, M. (2004) Medical geology: effects of geological environments on human health (Vol. 2). Elsevier. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Kumar, V., Bharti, P.K., Talwar, M., Tyagi, A.K. and Kumar, P. (2017) Studies on high iron content in water resources of Moradabad district (UP), India. Water Sci., v.31(1), pp.44–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Kumari, M. and Rai, S.C. (2020) Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater Quality for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes Using Water Quality Index in Semi Arid Region of India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.95(2), pp.159–168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Kumari, P., Gupta, N.C., Kaur, A. and Singh, K. (2019) Application of Principal Component Analysis and Correlation for Assessing Groundwater Contamination in and around Municipal Solid Waste Landfill of Ghazipur, Delhi. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.94(6), pp.595–604.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Kundu, A. and Nag, S.K. (2018) Assessment of groundwater quality in Kashipur Block, Purulia district, West Bengal. Appl. Water Sci., pp.8:33.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Li, P., Tian, R., Xue, C. and Wu, J. (2017) Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., v.24, pp.13224–13234.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. MacDonald, A.M., Bonsor, H.C., Ahmed, K.M., Burgess, W.G., Basharat, M., Calow, R.C.., … and Lark, R.M. (2016) Groundwater quality and depletion in the Indo-Gangetic Basin mapped from in situ observations. Nature Geosci., v.9(10), pp.762–766.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Mali, S.C., Thabaj, K.A. and Purandara, B.K. (2020) Evaluation of Geochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in Parts of Ghataprabha Sub-basin Using DRASTIC Indices. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.95, pp.513–519.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Mandour, R.A. (2012) Human health impacts of drinking water (surface and ground) pollution Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt. Appl. Water Sci., v.2(3), pp.157–163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Marghade, D., Malpe, D.B. and Zade, A.B. (2012) Major ion chemistry of shallow groundwater of a fast growing city of Central India. Environ. Monit. Assess., v.184(4), pp.2405–2418.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Mayo, A.L., Nelson, S.T., McBride, J.H., Mease, C.D., Tingey, D.G. and Aubrey, D. (2013) A combined geological, hydrochemical, and geophysical approach to understanding a disease contamination hazard in groundwaters at a state fish hatchery. Natural Hazards, v.69(1), pp.545–571.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Mondal, D. and Pal, S. (2015) A multi-parametric spatial modeling of vulnerability due to arsenic pollution in Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India. Arab. Jour. Geosci., v.8(10), pp.8047–8054.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Mukherjee, A. (2006) Deeper groundwater flow and chemistry in the arsenic affected western Bengal basin, West Bengal, India. Doctoral Dissertations. University of Kentucky, Lexington. 368p.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Mukherjee, A.B. and Bhattacharya, P. (2001) Arsenic in groundwater in the Bengal Delta Plain: slow poisoning in Bangladesh. Environ. Rev., v.9(3), pp.189–220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Mukherjee, A. and Fryar, A.E. (2008) Deeper groundwater chemistry and geochemical modeling of the arsenic affected western Bengal basin, West Bengal, India. Appl. Geochem., v.23(4), pp.863–894.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Mukherjee, A., von Brömssen, M., Scanlon, B.R., Bhattacharya, P., Fryar, A.E., Hasan, M.A., Chatterjeee, D., Jacks, G. and Sracek, O. (2008) Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-basin, India) and Eastern (Meghna sub-basin, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal Basin. Jour. Contam. Hydrol., v.99(1–4), pp.31–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Mukherjee, S.C., Saha, K.C., Pati, S., Dutta, R.N., Rahman, M.M., Sengupta, M.K., … and Nayak, B. (2005) Murshidabad—one of the nine groundwater arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Part II: dermatological, neurological, and obstetric findings. Clin. Toxicol., v.43(7), pp.835–848.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Neshat, A. and Pradhan, B. (2015) Risk assessment of groundwater pollution with a new methodological framework: application of Dempster-Shafer theory and GIS. Natural Hazards, v.78, pp.1565–1585

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Prasad, Y.S. and Rao, B.V. (2018) Groundwater depletion and groundwater balance studies of Kandivalasa river sub basin, Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Groundwater Sustain. Dev., v.6, pp.71–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Rahman, M.A.T., Saadat, A.H.M., Islam, M.S., Al-Mansur, M.A. and Ahmed, S. (2017) Groundwater characterization and selection of suitable water type for irrigation in the western region of Bangladesh. Appl. Water Sci., v.7(1), pp.233–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Ravenscroft, P., Burgess, W.G., Ahmed, K.M., Burren, M. and Perrin, J. (2005) Arsenic in groundwater of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh: Distribution, field relations, and hydrogeological setting. Hydrogeol. Jour., v.13(5–6), pp.727–751.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Ravish, S., Setia, B. and Deswal, S. (2020) Groundwater Quality Analysis of Northeastern Haryana using Multivariate Statistical Techniques. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.95, pp.407–416.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Ravikumar, P. and Somashekar, R.K. (2017) Principal component analysis and hydrochemical facies characterization to evaluate groundwater quality in Varahi river basin, Karnataka state, India. Appl. Water Sci., v.7(2), pp.745–755.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Rawat, K. S., Tripathi, V. K. and Singh, S. K. (2018) Groundwater quality evaluation using numerical indices: a case study (Delhi, India). Sustain. Water Resour. Manag., v.4(4), pp.875–885.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Rodell, M., Velicogna, I. and Famiglietti, J.S. (2009) Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India. Nature, v.460(7258), pp.999–1002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Saba, N., Umar, R. and Absar, A. (2018) Estimation of Anthropogenic Influences in Groundwater Quality of Shallow Aquifers of Moradabad City, Western Uttar Pradesh. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.91(6), pp.711–716.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Sankar, M.S., Vega, M.A., Defoe, P.P., Kibria, M.G., Ford, S., Telfeyan, K., Neal, A., Mohajerinc, T.J., Hettiarachchi, G.M., Barua, S., Hobson, C., Johannesson, K. and Datta, S. (2014) Elevated arsenic and manganese in groundwaters of Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. Sci. Total Environ., v.488, pp.570–579.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Selinus, O. (2013) Essentials of Medical Geology; Springer: New York, NY, USA, p. 824.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Selinus, O., Finkelman, R.B. and Centeno, J.A. (2010) Medical Geology: a regional synthesis. Springer Science & Business Media. New York, NY, USA. p. 392.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Selvam, S., Singaraja, C., Venkatramanan, S. and Chung, S.Y. (2018) Geochemical appraisal of groundwater quality in Ottapidaram taluk, Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu using graphical and numerical method. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.92(3), pp.313–320.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Shaji, E., Gömez-Alday, J.J., Hussein, S., Deepu, T.R. and Anilkumar, Y. (2018) Salinization and deterioration of groundwater quality by nitrate and fluoride in the Chittur block, Palakkad, Kerala. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.92(3), pp.337–345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Sharma, B., Kumar, M., Denis, D. M. and Singh, S. K. (2019) Appraisal of river water quality using open-access earth observation data set: a study of river Ganga at Allahabad (India). Sustain. Water Resour. Manag., v.5(2), pp.755–765.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Singh, S.K., Srivastava, P.K., Pandey, A.C. and Gautam, S.K. (2013) Integrated assessment of groundwater influenced by a confluence river system: concurrence with remote sensing and geochemical modelling. Water Resour. Manag., v.27, pp.4291–4313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Srinivasan, V., Lambin, E.F., Gorelick, S.M., Thompson, B.H. and Rozelle, S. (2012) The nature and causes of the global water crisis: Syndromes from a meta analysis of coupled human water studies. Water Resour. Res., v.48(10), pp.1–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Subba Rao, N., Rao, P.S., Reddy, G.V., Nagamani, M., Vidyasagar, G. and Satyanarayana, N.L.V.V. (2012) Chemical characteristics of groundwater and assessment of groundwater quality in Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ. Monit. Assess., v.184(8), pp.5189–5214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Turdi, M. and Yang, L. (2016) Trace elements contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from the agricultural and pastoral areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China. Internat. Jour. Env. Res. Public Health v. 13(10), pp.938.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. World Health Organization, (2017) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. Geneva: World Health Organization. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Zhang, P., Lv, Z., Gao, L. and Huang, L. (2012) A new framework of the unsupervised classification for high-resolution remote sensing image. Telkomnika. Indones. Jour. Electr. Eng, v.10(7), pp.1746–1755.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amit Bera.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mukhopadhyay, B.P., Barua, S., Bera, A. et al. Study on the Quality of Groundwater and its Impact on Human Health: A Case Study from Murshidabad District, West Bengal. J Geol Soc India 96, 597–602 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-020-1608-8

Download citation