The role of apelin in the healing of water-immersion and restraint stress-induced gastric damage
- 248 Downloads
The objective of this study was to explore the role of apelin in the healing of gastric lesions induced by stress. Male Wistar rats were exposed to water immersion and restraint stress (WIRS) for 6 h with or without the apelin receptor antagonist F13A. The rats were killed on the 1st, 3rd, 5th or 10th day after the end of stress induction. Apelin and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression was increased on the 1st day after the end of stress exposure and was decreased daily thereafter. However, F13A retarded the healing of gastric lesions by preventing the improvement of mucosal blood flow, prostaglandin E2 production and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in rats exposed to WIRS. Additionally, F13A increased the gastric 4-hydroxynonenol + malondialdehyde content on the 1st and 3rd days after the end of stress induction but did not affect the change in gastric mucosal nitric oxide levels. In conclusion, apelin may be a regulatory protein involved in the healing mechanism of stress-induced gastric damage.
KeywordsApelin F13A Gastric mucosa Lesion Water immersion and restraint stress
G protein-linked orphan receptor
Water immersion and restraint stress
Apelin receptor antagonist
Gastric mucosal blood flow
Vascular endothelial growth factor
Epidermal growth factor
This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) funded by the Turkish Government (Project number: 110S447).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
- 5.Wang G, Anini Y, Wei W, Qi X, O’Carroll AM, Mochizuki T, Wang HQ, Hellmich MR, Englander EW, Greeley Jr GH (2004) Apelin, a new enteric peptide: localization in the gastrointestinal tract, ontogeny, and stimulation of gastric cell proliferation and of cholecystokinin secretion. Endocrinology 145(3):1342–1348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6.Ishida J, Hashimoto T, Hashimoto Y, Nishiwaki S, Iguchi T, Harada S, Sugaya T, Matsuzaki H, Yamamoto R, Shiota N, Okunishi H, Kihara M, Umemura S, Sugiyama F, Yagami K, Kasuya Y, Mochizuki N, Fukamizu A (2004) Regulatory roles for APJ, a seven-transmembrane receptor related to angiotensin-type 1 receptor in blood pressure in vivo. J Biol Chem 279(25):26274–26279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Tan R, Bulbul M, Ongut G, Tosun O, Izgut-Uysal VN (2006) Prostaglandins, capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and neutrophil infiltration, but not nitric oxide, contribute to cold restraint stress-induced gastric adaptation in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 33(10):946–951CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Blackmore MS, Lord CC (2000) The relationship between size and fecundity in Aedes albopictus. J Vector Ecol 25:2212–2217Google Scholar
- 33.Kwiecien S, Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Pawlik MW, Pawlik WW, Kwiecien N, Konturek SJ (2004) Gastroprotection by pentoxyfilline against stress-induced gastric damage. Role of lipid peroxidation, antioxidizing enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines. J Physiol Pharmacol 55(2):337–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 34.Kwiecień S, Pawlik MW, Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Śliwowski Z, Pawlik WW, Konturek SJ (2008) Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing aspirin and (NO) donors in protection of gastric mucosa against stress. J Physiol Pharmacol 59(Suppl 2):103–115Google Scholar
- 39.Pisarenko O, Shulzhenko V, Studneva I, Pelogeykina Y, Timoshin A, Anesia R, Valet P, Parini A, Kunduzova O (2015) Structural apelin analogues: mitochondrial ROS inhibition and cardiometabolic protection in myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. Br J Pharmacol 172(12):2933–2945CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar