A case with discrete fibromuscular subaortic stenosis: evaluation by three-dimensional echocardiography

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Conflict of interest

Rajiv Bharat Kharwar, Safal, Sudhanshu Dwivedi, Ram Kirti Saran, and Sharad Chandra declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000(5). Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

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Correspondence to Safal.

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Supplementary material 1 (AVI 2906 kb). Video 1. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography with color Doppler. Apical long-axis orientation clearly showing the fibromuscular ridge in the left ventricular outflow tract region with color flow turbulence across the ridge. LA =  left atrium, LV = left ventricle

Supplementary material 2 (AVI 406 kb). Video 2. Three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. The parasternal long-axis orientation has been rotated so that the fibromuscular ridge can be seen from the aortic side. The central opening in the fibromuscular ridge can be clearly delineated. LA = left atrium, LV = left ventricle

Supplementary material 3 (AVI 314 kb). Video 3. Three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. The parasternal long-axis orientation has been rotated so as to see the fibromuscular ridge from the left ventricular side. The central opening in the fibromuscular ridge can be clearly delineated, as can the relationship between the ridge and the anterior mitral leaflet. LV = left ventricle

Supplementary material 4 (AVI 190 kb). Video 4. Three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography with color Doppler. The parasternal long-axis orientation has been rotated so that the ridge can be seen from the aortic side. The turbulence across the central opening in the subaortic ridge is clearly visible

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Kharwar, R.B., Safal, Dwivedi, S. et al. A case with discrete fibromuscular subaortic stenosis: evaluation by three-dimensional echocardiography. J Echocardiogr 12, 162–164 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12574-014-0228-y

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Keywords

  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Transthoracic Echocardiography
  • Membranous Type
  • Supplementary Video
  • Aortic Valve Regurgitation