Table 2 Recommendations for the facilitation of student interactions

From: Person-to-person interactions in online classroom settings under the impact of COVID-19: a social presence theory perspective

  Student-to-instructor interaction   Student-to-student interaction
Encouragement 1. Keep on asking questions about the subject/lecture and tutorial cases and encourage students to answer using the chat or microphone Encouragement 1. Encourage students verbally
2. Encourage students to use Teams or Zoom to hold meetings amongst themselves to discuss further the given assignments/group projects
3. Encourage students to use online whiteboard and WhatsApp group video call
More consultations 1. Provide some time to do consultation in class and try to talk to each student after the period
2. Provide more consultation sessions
Peer evaluation 1. Peer review (amongst students) can be an option to allow students to evaluate their performances
Incentives 1. Give bonus or extra credits to encourage students to join class discussion
2. Incentives can also be given to students (e.g., provide marks to commend their participation)
Incentives 1. Incentives or rewards can be necessary to stimulate interaction amongst students
Breakout rooms 1. Form discussion groups during tutorial lesson and let students present their findings right after the discussion time Breakout rooms 1. Set more online meeting rooms to encourage interaction amongst students when needed
2. Use breakout rooms. In this way, instructors can join and check if students are really interacting with one another
3. Allow breakout rooms for small group discussion. This can ensure more attention and interaction from students
Techniques 1. Use polling via the chat room. Use clickers such as Kahoot and Poll everywhere
2. To ensure students are physically and mentally present in the discussion, use ‘chat’ function to ask students questions and ‘name’ students to answer the given questions
3. Create more two-way activities if possible
4. Incorporate interesting teaching materials
Techniques 1. Ask students (in group) to submit group projects (e.g., group paper with less than two pages) to indicate their interaction during discussion
2. Allow more time for group work
3. Ask students at the beginning of the semester to form groups and take up a short tutorial presentation/sharing (e.g., 15 min) in turn, which will be followed up by feedback and further enquiries from the lecturer or students