Advertisement

Teachers’ actual and preferred perceptions of twenty-first century learning competencies: a Chinese perspective

  • Guoyuan Sang
  • Jyh-Chong Liang
  • Ching Sing Chai
  • Yan Dong
  • Chin-Chung Tsai
Article

Abstract

To help students build twenty-first century learning skills, teachers must have reasonable perceptions about twenty-first century learning. To investigate Chinese teachers’ perceptions of twenty-first century learning competencies (TP21CLC), we conducted a survey (N = 340) using the questionnaire “Teachers’ Perceptions of 21st Century Learning Competencies.” This scale consists of six subscales including collaborative learning; self-directed learning; meaningful use of information and communication technology; critical thinking; creative thinking; and problem solving. Teachers rated each item on two forms of expression: perceptions of preferred learning and perceptions of actual learning. The results indicated that there was a clear gap between actual and preferred perceptions of twenty-first century learning. In addition, teachers’ perceptions of meaningful use of information and communication technology (ICT) had significant, positive correlations with other factors of TP21CLC.

Keywords

Teacher perceptions Twenty-first century learning competency Learning strategies TPACK 

Notes

Funding

Funding was provided by International Cooperation Research Program of Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University and Faculty of Education and Social Work, The University of Sydney (Grant Nos. 2016GJXM06, 2016GJXM01)

References

  1. Abbot, J. (2007). 21st century learning. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from http://www.21learn.org.
  2. Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33(8), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Butler, D. L., & Schnellert, L. (2012). Collaborative inquiry in teacher professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 1206–1220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Canter, A. (2004). A problem-solving model for improving student achievement. Principal Leadership (High School Edition), 5(4), 11–15.Google Scholar
  5. Chai, C. S., Deng, F., Tsai, P. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2015). Assessing multidimensional students’ perceptions of twenty-first-century learning practices. Asia Pacific Education Review, 16(3), 389–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., Tsai, C. C., & Tan, L. L. W. (2011). Modeling primary school pre-service teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for meaningful learning with information and communication technology (ICT). Computers & Education, 57(1), 1184–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cleary, T. J., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2004). Self-regulation empowerment program: A school-based program to enhance self-regulated and self-motivated cycles of student learning. Psychology in the Schools, 41(5), 537–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, J. (1998). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd edn.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Colburn, A. (2000). An inquiry primer. Science Scope, 23(6), 42–44.Google Scholar
  10. Corte, M. V. D., Brok, P. D., Kamp, M., & Bergen, T. (2013). Teacher research in Dutch professional development schools: perceptions of the actual and preferred situation in terms of the context, process and outcomes of research. European Journal of Teacher Education, 36(1), 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Koster, S., Kuiper, E., & Volman, M. (2012). Concept-guided development of ICT use in ‘traditional’ and ‘innovative’ primary schools: what types of ICT use do schools develop? Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(5), 454–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dede, C. (2010). Comparing frameworks for 21st century skills. In J. Bellanca & R. Brandt (Eds.), 21st century skills (pp. 51–76). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dong, Y., Chai, C. S., Sang, G.-Y., Koh, H. L., & Tsai, C.-C. (2015). Exploring the profiles and interplays of pre-service and in-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in China. Educational Technology & Society, 18(1), 158–169.Google Scholar
  14. Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  15. Finegold, D., & Notabartolo, A. S. (2010). 21st century competencies and their impact: An interdisciplinary literature review. In D. Finegold, M. Gatta, H. Salzman, & S. J. Schurman (Eds.), Transforming the US workforce development system (pp. 19–56). Champaign, IL: Labor and Employment Relations Association.Google Scholar
  16. Fraser, B. J. (2012). Classroom learning environments: Retrospect, context and prospect. In B. Fraser, K. Tobin & C. McRobbie (Eds.), Second international handbook of science education (pp. 1191–1239). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. García-Valcárcel, A., Basilotta, V., & López, C. (2014). ICT in collaborative learning in the classrooms of primary and secondary education. Comunicar, 21(42), 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Halpern, D. (1996). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  19. Howland, J. L., Jonassen, D., & Marra, R. M. (2012). Meaningful learning with technology (4th edn.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  20. International Society for Technology in Education [ISTE]. (2007). The ISTE National Education Technology Standards and performance indicators for students. Retrieved March 24, 2015, from http://www.iste.org/docs/pdfs/20-14_ISTE_Standards-S_PDF.pdf.
  21. Kim, H., Choi, H., Han, J., & So, H. J. (2012). Enhancing teachers’ ICT capacity for the 21st century learning environment: Three cases of teacher education in Korea. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(6), 965–982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kincheloe, J. L., & Horn, R. A. (Eds.)., (2007). The Praeger handbook of education and psychology (Vol. 1). Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  23. Law, N. (2009). Mathematics and science teachers’ pedagogical orientations and their use of ICT in teaching. Education and Information Technologies, 14(4), 309–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Law, N., Lee, Y., & Chow, A. (2002). Practice characteristics that lead to 21st century learning outcomes. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18(4), 415–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lin, T. C., Tsai, C. C., Chai, C. S., & Lee, M. H. (2013). Identifying science teachers’ perceptions of technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Science Education and Technology, 22(3), 325–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Loertscher, D. (2007). Invention, transfer, efficiency, and innovation: 21st century learning abilities can be taught. Teacher Librarian, 34(5), 36–36.Google Scholar
  27. Lombaerts, K., Engels, N., & van Braak, J. (2009). Determinants to teachers’ recognitions of self-regulated learning practices in elementary education. The Journal of Educational Research, 102, 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McMahon, G. (2009). Critical Thinking and ICT Integration in a Western Australian Secondary School. Educational Technology & Society, 12(4), 269–281.Google Scholar
  29. Mishra, P., & Kereluik, K. (2011). What 21st century learning? A review and a synthesis. In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of society for information technology & teacher education international conference 2011 (pp. 3301–3312). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved May 24, 2017, from http://www.editlib.org/p/36828.
  30. O’Bannon, B. W., & Thomas, K. (2014). Teacher perceptions of using mobile phones in the classroom: Age matters. Computers & Education, 74, 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD]. (2005). The definition and selection of key competencies: Executive summary. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.Google Scholar
  32. Orlando, J. (2013). ICT-mediated practice and constructivist practices: is this still the best plan for teachers’ uses of ICT? Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 22(2), 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. P21. Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2009). Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved November, 20, 2016, from http://www.p21.org.
  34. Pelgrum, W. J., & Anderson, R. A. (Eds.). (1999). ICT and the emerging paradigm for life long learning: A worldwide educational assessment of infrastructure, goals and practices. Amsterdam: IEA.Google Scholar
  35. Peng, W. J., McNess, E., Thomas, S., Wu, X., Zhang, C., Li, J., & Tian, H. (2014). Emerging perceptions of teacher quality and teacher development in China. International Journal of Educational Development, 34, 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reigeluth, C. M., Carr-Chellman, A., Beabout, B., & Watson, W. (2009). Creating shared visions of the future for K-12 education: A systematic transformation process for a learner-centered paradigm. In L. Moller & J. B. Huett (Eds.), Learning and instructional technologies for the 21st century: Visions of the future (pp. 131–149). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  37. Siddiq, F., Gochyyev, P., & Wilson, M. (2017). Learning in digital networks–ICT literacy: A novel assessment of students’ 21st century skills. Computers & Education, 109, 11–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tao, Y., Oliver, M., & Venville, G. (2013). A comparison of approaches to the teaching and learning of science in Chinese and Australian elementary classrooms: Cultural and socioeconomic complexities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 50(1), 33–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Voogt, J., Knezek, G., Cox, M., Knezek, D., & Ten Brummelhuis, A. (2013). Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning? A call to action. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29(1), 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Voogt, J., & Roblin, N. P. (2012). A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: Implications for national curriculum policies. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 44(3), 299–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wagner, T. (2008). Rigor redefined. Educational Leadership, 66(2), 20–24.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Education Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guoyuan Sang
    • 1
  • Jyh-Chong Liang
    • 2
  • Ching Sing Chai
    • 3
  • Yan Dong
    • 4
  • Chin-Chung Tsai
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Teacher Education ResearchBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Program of Learning SciencesNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Curriculum and InstructionThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  4. 4.School of Educational Technology, Faculty of EducationBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations