This study assessed wastewater quality through the quantification of four human enteric viruses and the applicability of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as indicators of viral reduction during wastewater treatment. Thirty-three samples were collected from three steps of a wastewater treatment plant in Southern Louisiana, USA for a year between March 2017 and February 2018. Noroviruses of genogroup I were the most prevalent human enteric viruses in influent samples. The concentrations of PMMoV in influent samples (5.9 ± 0.7 log10 copies/L) and biologically treated effluent samples (5.9 ± 0.5 log10 copies/L) were significantly higher than those of TMV (P < 0.05), and the reduction ratio of PMMoV (1.0 ± 0.8 log10) was found comparable to those of TMV and Aichi virus 1. Because of the high prevalence, high correlations with human enteric viruses, and lower reduction ratios, PMMoV was deemed an appropriate indicator of human enteric viral reduction during wastewater treatment process.
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This study was partially supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science through Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (Grant Number JP17H03332) and by the Board of Regents grant number LEQSF (2018-21)-rd-a-21 to Dr. Samendra Sherchan. The authors thank Dr. Jia Xue and Mr. Collin Potter (Tulane University, USA), and Dr. Bikash Malla, Dr. Rajani Ghaju Shrestha, Mr. Ocean Thakali, Ms. Niva Sthapit, and Mr. Bijay Man Shakya (University of Yamanashi, Japan).
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Tandukar, S., Sherchan, S.P. & Haramoto, E. Reduction of Human Enteric and Indicator Viruses at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Southern Louisiana, USA. Food Environ Virol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09433-1
- Human enteric virus
- Pepper mild mottle virus
- Tobacco mosaic virus
- Wastewater treatment