New molecular biomarkers in precise diagnosis and therapy of Type 2 diabetes

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Abstract

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease associated with disturbances in metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, and largely under the influence of very complex interactions with genetic and environment factors. High prevalence and increasing number of patients with T2D in the world, represent constant challenge for better elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms which contribute to disease development. This paper summarizes a new molecular biomarker that emerged from recent studies in applied genomics, metabolomics and other modern “omics” technologies as powerful tools in diagnosis of T2D. Metabolomics, in this context, has a special potential since it uses newly developed analytical methods in analyses of wide range of metabolites in biological samples. Numbers of prospective studies have shown that changes in the concentration of some individual amino acids, acylcarnitines, hexoses and phospholipids augment or attenuate risk factors for developing T2D. Recently findings shown that polymorphisms in TCF7L2 gene were strongly associated with increasing risk for T2D development while studies of lipidomics, genomics and transcriptomics identified molecular markers for glucose intolerance and other traits. Some specific gene variations were identified which affected de novo lipogenesis and they were significantly associated with concentrations of palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic and oleic acids, the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Development of new trends in analysis and detection of different metabolites, especially fatty acids and amino acids, along with genetic polymorphisms points out new directions in precise diagnosis and therapy of Type 2 diabetes.

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Change history

  • 02 December 2019

    The article “New molecular biomarkers in precise diagnosis and therapy of type 2 diabetes,” written by S. Mandal, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s Internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on October 26, 2019, with open access.

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Mandal, S. New molecular biomarkers in precise diagnosis and therapy of Type 2 diabetes. Health Technol. 10, 601–608 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12553-019-00385-6

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Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Omics technologies
  • Type 2 diabetes