Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 85–90 | Cite as

Enniatin B and ochratoxin A in the blood serum of workers from the waste management setting

  • Susana Viegas
  • Bernd Osteresch
  • Ana Almeida
  • Benedikt Cramer
  • Hans-Ulrich Humpf
  • Carla Viegas
Original Article


The waste management occupational environment is recognized by the simultaneous presence of several substances and biologic agents. Therefore, workers are exposed simultaneously to multiple contaminants. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 in one Portuguese waste sorting plant was already reported. However, besides this mycotoxin, data regarding fungal contamination showed that exposure to other mycotoxins could be expected. A study was developed to analyze if exposure to other mycotoxins besides aflatoxin B1 was occurring in the workers from the waste sorting plant previously assessed and to discuss how these findings need to be considered in the risk assessment process. In addition to aflatoxin B1 detected previously by ELISA, two additional mycotoxins and one mycotoxin degradation product were detected and quantified by a multi-mycotoxin HPLC-MS/MS approach: Enniatin B and ochratoxin A as well as 2’R-ochratoxin A. Besides the confirmation of co-exposure to several mycotoxins, results probably indicate different exposure routes for the mycotoxins reported.


Mycotoxins Occupational exposure Co-exposure Risk assessment Food consumption 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results. The authors have full control of all primary data and agree to allow the journal to review their data if requested.


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Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GIAS, ESTeSL-Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de LisboaInstituto Politécnico de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Centro de Investigação em Saúde Pública, Escola Nacional de Saúde PúblicaUniversidade Nova de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Institute of Food ChemistryWestfälische Wilhelms-Universität MünsterMünsterGermany

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