Macro and miofloral analyses of coal-bearing sequences of the Jarangdih coal mine, Damodar Basin, were carried out to infer the floral diversity, age assessment, and the palaeoenvironment during the deposition of the Barakar Formation in this area. Damodar Basin, one of the five major Gondwana basins in India, is considered as the reference basin for inter-basinal age correlations. The Barakar strata of this colliery have yielded a diverse macroflora consisting of the groups Glossopteridales (Glossopteris, Vertebraria, Gangamopteris, fructifications, and stem casts) and Equisetales (Phyllotheca indica, Schizoneura gondwanensis, and Paracalamites sp.). The genus Glossopteris dominates the assemblage with 16 species viz. G. arberi, G. communis, G. churiensis, G. giridihensis, G. indica, G. intermedia, G. intermittens, G. leptoneura, G. linearis, G. mohudaensis, G. recurva, G. searsolensis, G. stenoneura, G. taenensis, G. tenuifolia, and G. tenuinervis. The leaves of Glossopteris leptoneura have impressions of male sporangia adhered on them. The groups Lycopodiales, Coniferales, Sphenophyllales, and Filicales are not represented as macrofloral remains; however, their presence is recorded in the palynoassemblage.
The palynological analysis has revealed only one palynoassemblage characterised by the dominance of striate bisaccate palynomorphs mainly Faunipollenites and non-striate bisaccate pollen—Scheuringipollenites. The other stratigraphically significant palynotaxa are Striatopodocarpites, Verticipollenites, Crescentipollenites, Striatites, and Arcuatipollenites. The recovered palyno- and megafloral assemblages suggest the late early Permian (Kungurian) age to the Barakar strata of Jarangdih coal mine and prevalence of moderately warm climate during their deposition.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Agnihotri, D., Tewari, R., Pillai, S. S. K., Jasper, A., & Uhl, D. (2016). Early Permian Glossopteris flora from the Sharda Open Cast Mine, Sohagpur Coafield, Shahdol District, Madhya Pradesh. Palaeobotanist, 65, 97–107.
Anand-Prakash, & Srivastava, S. C. (1984). Miofloral studies of the lower Gondwana sediments in Johilla coalfield, Madhya Pradesh, India. Palaeobotanist, 32(3), 243–252.
Anand–Prakash, Srivastava, S. C., & Tiwari, R. S. (1979). The nature of groove pavement and palynology of overlying Talchir and Karharbari sediments in West Bokaro Coalfield, Bihar, India. Palaeobotanist, 26(1), 63–71.
Balme, B. E. (1995). Fossil in situ spores and pollen grains: an annotated catalogue. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 87, 81–323. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(95)93235-X.
Banerjee, M. (1978). Genus Glossopteris Brongniart and its stratigraphic significance in the Palaeozoics of India part I-a revisional study of some species of the genus Glossopteris. Bulletin of the Botanical Society of Bengal, 32, 81–125.
Bunbury, C. J. F. (1861). Notes on a collection of fossil plants from Nagpur, Central India. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 17, 325–346.
Chandra, S., & Chandra, A. (1988). Vegetational changes and their climatic implications in coal-bearing Gondwana. Palaeobotanist, 36, 74–86.
Chandra, S., & Singh, K. J. (1992). The genus Glossopteris from the Late Permian beds of Handapa, Orissa, India. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 75, 183–218.
Chandra, S., & Surange, K. R. (1979). Revision of the Indian species of Glossopteris. Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Monograph, 2, 1–301.
Feistmantel, O. (1876). Notes on the age of some fossil floras of India-III, IV &V. Records of the Geological Survey of India, 9(3), 63–114.
Feistmantel, O. (1879). The fossil flora of the Lower Gondwanas-1. The flora of the Talchir- Karharbari beds. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica, 12(3), 1–64.
Feistmantel, O. (1880). The fossil flora of the Gondwana System (Lower Gondwanas)-2. The flora of the Damuda and Panchet Divisions (Ist part). Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica, 3(2), 1–77.
Feistmantel, O. (1881). The fossil flora of the Gondwana System-3 (Lower Gondwanas). The flora of the Damuda and Panchet divisions. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Palaeontologia Indica, 3, 1–154.
Feistmantel, O. (1890). Coal and plant bearing beds of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic in Eastern Australia and Tasmania with special reference to fossil flora. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of New South Wales, Palaeontology, 3, 1–183.
Ghosh, T. K. (1962). Study of the Gondwana rocks with notes on the coal and fireclay deposits of Kuju, West Bokaro Coalfield, District Hazaribagh, Bihar. Quarterly Journal Geological, Mining and Metallurgical Society (India), 34(2–3), 57–73.
Goswami, S., & Singh, K. J. (2013). Floral biodiversity and geology of the Talcher Basin, Orissa, India during the Permian-Triassic interval. Geological Journal, 48, 39–56.
Goswami, S., Saxena, A., Singh, K. J., Chandra, S., & Cleal, C. J. (2018). An appraisal of the Permian palaeobiodiversity and geology of the Ib-River Basin, eastern coastal area, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 157, 283–301.
Gould, R. E., & Delevoryas, T. (1977). The biology of Glossopteris: evidence from petrified seed-bearing and pollen-bearing organs. Alcheringa, 1, 87–399.
Hughes, T. W. H. (1867). The Bokaro Coalfield. Memoir Geological Survey of India, 6(2), −.
Kumar, U., & Sahay, A. V. (2001). Prospects of coal bed methane in Jarangdih–Asnapani Graben, East Bokaro coalfields, Bihar, India. In: Proceedings International Seminar on “Coal Bed Methane–Prospects and Potentialities” (pp. 49–56). South Asian Association Economic Geologist.
Lele, K. M. (1966). Studies in the Talchir flora of India- 4. Quest for the early traces and subsequent development of the Glossopteris flora in the Talchir stage. In Anonymous (Editor) - Symposium on floristics and stratigraphy of Gondwanaland (pp. 85–97). Lucknow: Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany.
Lele, K. M. (1975). Studies in the Talchir flora of India–10. Early and Late Talchir miofloras from the West Bokaro Coalfield, Bihar. Palaeobotanist, 22(3), 219–235.
Lele, K. M. (1976). Palaeoclimatic implications of Gondwana floras. Geophytology, 6(2), 207–229.
Maheshwari, H. K. (1965). Studies in the Glossopteris Flora of India 22. On some species of the genus Glossopteris from the Raniganj stage of the Raniganj Coalfield, Bengal. Palaeobotanist, 13, 129–143.
Maheshwari, H. K. (1992). Provincialism in Gondwana Floras. Palaeobotanist, 40, 101–127.
Maheshwari, H. K., & Tewari, R. (1992). Epidermal morphology of some Indian species of the genus Glossopteris Brongniart. Palaeobotanist, 39, 338–380.
McCoy, F. (1847). On the fossil botany and zoology of the rocks associated with the coal of Australia. Annals magazine of natural history I"Series, 20, 145-157.
McLoughlin, S. (1992). Permian sphenophytes from the Collie and Perth Basins, Western Australia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 75(3-4), 153–182.
Murthy, S. (2010). Palynostratigraphy of the Permian succession in Borehole RJS-2, Raniganj Coalfield, Damodar Basin, West Bengal. Journal Indian Geological Congress, 2(2), 83–90.
Murthy, S. (2017). Late Permian palynomorphs from the West Bokaro Coalfield, Damodar Basin, Jharkhand, India. Palaeobotanist, 66, 201–209.
Murthy, S., & Rajanikanth, A. (2017). Palynology and palaeoenvironment of Late Permian Sawang OCM, East Bokaro Coalfield, Damodar Basin, India. Palaeobotanist, 66, 61–70.
Murthy, S., Ram-Awatar, & Gautam, S. (2014). Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India and phytogeographical provincialism. Journal of Earth System Science, 123(8), 1879–1893.
Murthy, S., Mahesh, S., & Jyoti Shankar, R. (2016). Palyno-petrographical facet and depositional account of Gondwana sediments from East Bokaro Coalfield, Jharkhand, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 88, 549–558.
Pal, P. K., & Ghosh, A. (1988). Platyphyllum bokaroensis sp. nov. from East Bokaro Coal-Field, India. Geophytology, 18(2), 219–220.
Pal, P. K., & Ghosh, A. K. (1994). Miofloral assemblage from Deoli member of Panchet formation in the East Bokaro Coalfield, India (pp. 22–23) . Hyderabad: IX International Gondwana Symposium. (Abstract).
Pant, D. D., & Gupta, K. L. (1971). Cuticular structure of some Indian lower Gondwana species of Glossopteris Brongniart-part II. Palaeontographica B, 132, 130–152.
Pant, D. D., & Singh, R. S. (1974). On the stem and attachment of Glossopteris and Gangamopteris leaves. Part II. Structural features. Palaeontographica B, 147, 42–73.
Raja Rao, C. S. (1987). Coalfields of India. Bulletin Geological Survey of India, A–IV, 45(I), 1–60.
Rigby, J. F., Maheshwari, H. K., & Schopf, J. M. (1980). Revision of Permian plants collected by J. D. Dana (1839-1840). Geological Survey of Queensland Published. 376. Palaeontology Paper, 47, 1–25.
Saxena, A., Singh, K. J., & Goswami, S. (2014). Advent and decline of the genus Glossopteris Brongniart in the Talcher Coalfield, Mahanadi Basin, Odisha, India. Palaeobotanist, 63, 157–168.
Saxena, A., Singh, K. J., Shabbar, H., & Prakash, A. (2016). Macrofloral assemblage from the early Permian Barakar Formation of Singrauli Coalfield, Son-Mahanadi Basin, India. Palaeobotanist, 65, 139–150.
Saxena, A., Singh, K. J., Cleal, C. J., Chandra, S., Goswami, S., & Shabbar, H. (2018). Development of the Glossopteris flora and its end Permian demise in the Tatapani–Ramkola Coalfield, Son–Mahanadi Basin, India. Geological Journal. https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.3307.
Schimper, W. P. (1869). Traite de paleontologie vegetable. Paris: I. Bailliere.
Sen Gupta, S. (1965). A new fossiliferous horizon from the East Bokaro Coalfield. Quaterly Journal of geology, mineralogy and metallurgy society of India, 37, 135–137.
Singh, S. M. (1998). Contributions to the early Permian flora of Karanpura and Bokaro coalfields, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India.
Singh, S. M. (2000a). On the genera Pantophyllum, Euryphyllum & Kawizophyllum from Karanpura and Bokaro Coalfields, India. Palaeobotanist, 49, 31–42.
Singh, S. M. (2000b). Glossopteris flora from the Early Permian of Karanpura and Bokaro Coalfields, India. Geophytology, 29(1, 2), 69–80.
Singh, K. J., & Chandra, S. (1996). Plant fossils from the exposure near Gopal Prasad village, Talcher Coalfield, Orissa with remarks on the age of the bed. Geophytology, 26, 69–75.
Singh, K. J., & Chandra, S. (2000). Additional palaeobotanical information from Madhupur village, Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India. Palaeobotanist, 49, 385–398.
Singh, S. M., & Maheshwari, H. K. (2000). On the species of genus Glossopteris from Barakar Formation of Karanpura and Bokaro coalfields, India. Palaeobotanist, 49, 409–441.
Singh, K. J., & Saxena, A. (2015). End Permian (Lopingian) floral diversity in Singrauli Coalfield: evidences from Jhingurdah Colliery, Son-Mahanadi Basin, India. Journal of Paleontological Society of India, 60, 97–112.
Singh, K. J., Goswami, S., & Chandra, S. (2006). Megafloral assemblage similar to Karharbari biozone from Talchir Coalfield of Mahanadi Basin, Orissa. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 68, 277–287.
Singh, K. J., Goswami, S., & Singh, G. (2011). Palaeodiversity in the genus Glossopteris from the Lower Gondwana rocks of the Korba Coalfield, Chhattisgarh State, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 56, 45–64.
Singh, K. J., Murthy, S., Saxena, A., & Shabbar, H. (2017). Permian macro- and miofloral diversity, palynodating and palaeoclimate implications deduced from the coal-bearing sequences of Singrauli coalfield, Son–Mahanadi Basin, central India. Journal of Earth System Science, 126, 25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-017-0809-z.
Smith, A. G., Hurley, A. M., & Briden, J. C. (1981). Phanerozoic palaeocontinental world maps; Cambridge Univ. Cambridge: Press.
Srivastava, P. N. (1954). On some lower Gondwana megaspores and seeds from Mangardaha Coal West Bokaro, Bihar. Palaeobotanist, 3, 113–115.
Srivastava, P. N. (1956). Studies in the Glossopteris flora of India-Glossopteris, Gangamopteris and Palaeovittaria from the Raniganj Coalfield, India. Palaeobotanist, 5(1), 1–45.
Srivastava, A. K. (1977). Studies in the Glossopteris flora of India-42. Barakar plant megafossils and miospores from Auranga Coalfield, Bihar. Palaeobotanist, 24, 50–69.
Srivastava, A. K. (1992). Plant fossil assemblages from the Barakar Formation of Raniganj Coalfield, India. Palaeobotanist, 39(3), 281–302.
Srivastava, A. K., & Agnihotri, D. (2010). Upper Permian plant fossil assemblage of Bijori Formation: a case study of Glossopteris flora beyond the limit of Raniganj Formation. Journal Geological Society of India, 76, 47–62.
Srivastava, A. K., & Tewari, R. (1996). Plant fossils from the Barakar Formation, Auranga Coalfield, Bihar. Geophytology, 26, 83–88.
Srivastava, S. C., & Jha, N. (1989). Palynostratigraphy of lower Gondwana sediments in Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India. Palaeoboianist, 37(2), 199–209.
Srivastava, A. K., Tewari, R., & Agnihotri, D. (2010). Morphocuticular study of Glossopteris stenoneura Feistmantel from the Barakar Formation of Raniganj Coalfield, West Bengal. Palaeobotanist, 59, 39–144.
Srivastava, A. K., Saxena, A., & Agnihotri, D. (2012). Morphological and stratigraphical significance of lower Gondwana Plant Fossils of Mohpani Coalfield, Satpura Gondwana Basin, Madhya Pradesh. Journal Geological Society of India, 80, 674–684.
Surange, K. R. (1966). Distribution of Glossoptris in the lower Gondwana Formations of India. Symposium on Floristic. Strat. Gondwana (pp. 55–68). Lucknow: Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany.
Surange, K. R., & Singh, P. (1951). Walkomiella indica, a new conifer from the Lower Gondwanas of India. Journal Botanical Society of India, 30, 143–147.
Surange, K. R., Singh, P., & Srivastava, P. N. (1953a). Megaspores from West Bokaro Coalfield (lower Gondwanas) of Bihar. Palaeobotanist, 2, 9–13.
Surange, K. R., Srivastava, P. N., & Singh, P. (1953b). Microfossils analysis of some lower Gondwana coal seams of West Bokaro, Bihar. Bulletin of National Institute of Science, India, 2, 111–127.
Suttner, L. J., & Dutta, P. K. (1986). Alluvial sandstone composition and palaeoclimate. II. Authegenic mineralogy. Journal of Sedimentology and Petrolology, 56, 346–358.
Tewari, R. (2008). The genus Glossopteris Brongniart from the Kamthi Formation of Camp IV area, Wardha Valley Coalfield, Wardha Basin, Maharashtra, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 53, 19–30.
Tewari, R., & Srivastava, A. K. (2000). Plant fossil assemblage from the Talchir Formation, Auranga Coalfield, Bihar, India. Palaeobotanist, 49, 23–30.
Tewari, R., Pandita, S. K., Agnihotri, D., Pillai, S. S. K., & Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M. E. C. (2012). An early Permian Glossopteris flora from the Umrer Coalfield, Wardha Basin, Maharashtra, India. Alcheringa, 36, 355–371.
Tiwari, R. S., & Tripathi, A. (1987). Palynological zones and their climate inference in the coal bearing Gondwana of Peninsular India. Palaeobotanist, 36, 87–101.
Tiwari, R. S., & Tripathi, A. (1992). Marker assemblage zones of spores and pollen species through Gondwana Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sequence in India. Palaeobotanist, 40, 194–236.
Tripathi, A., Vijaya, Murthy, S., Chakarborty, B., & Das, D. K. (2012). Stratigraphic status of coal horizon in Tatapani-Ramkola coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India. Journal of Earth System Science, 121(2), 537–557.
Vijaya. (1990). Evolutionary patterns of striations and taeniae in Indian Gondwana saccate pollen. In K.P. Jain & R.S. Tiwari (Eds.)- Pro. Symp. Vistas in Indian palaeobotany. Palaeobotanist, 38, 83–91.
Vijaya, Murthy, S., Chakraborty, B., & Roy, J. S. (2012). Palynological dating of subsurface coal bearing horizon in East Bokaro Coalfield, Damodar Basin, Jharkhand. Palaeontographica, 288(1–4), 41–63.
Williams, D. H. (1846-1847). Lower Gondwana Coalfields of India by Cyril S. Fox. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, 59, 119.
The authors are thankful to Director, BSIP for granting permission (BSIP/RDCC/93/2017-18) and providing necessary facilities to carry out this work. We are grateful to the reviewers Dr. Zbyněk Šimůnek, and Prof. Shreerup Goswami for their fruitful comments and suggestions that have helped us to improve the manuscript. We also acknowledge Dr. Christopher J. Cleal, National Museum Wales, Cardiff, UK, for his critical comments and linguistic improvements.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Saxena, A., Murthy, S. & Singh, K.J. Floral diversity and environment during the early Permian: a case study from Jarangdih Colliery, East Bokaro Coalfield, Damodar Basin, India. Palaeobio Palaeoenv 100, 33–50 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12549-019-00375-6
- Early Permian
- Barakar Formation
- Damodar Basin