Macroflora and charophyte gyrogonites from the middle Miocene Gračanica deposits in central Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract

Middle Miocene lacustrine marls from the Gračanica coal mine ~ 10 km SSE of the city of Bugojno, Bosnia and Herzegovina, have yielded a species-poor florule comprised of angiosperm leaves (Lauraceae, Myricaceae, “Rhamnuswarthae), Glyptostrobus europaeus twigs, a frond fragment of Pronephrium stiriacum, and a seed assignable to the Vitaceae. The composition of the florule is suggestive of a swampy lowland environment; climatic conditions were humid subtropical (Cfa climate). Lignite seams containing abundant fossil wood (including large logs) characterise the deposits underlying the marls; the interburden between the lignite has yielded abundant plant chaff, including shoot fragments of Equisetum, and the charophyte gyrogonites Lychnothamnus duplicicarinatus and Chara molassica notata.

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Acknowledgements

We thank D. Vasilyan (Porrentruy, Switzerland) for making the material available for study. We are grateful to A. Fürst for screen-washing sediment samples and S. Gartner (both Vienna, Austria) for picking the gyrogonites from the residue. The paper greatly benefitted from the valuable comments and suggestions of O. Mandic (Vienna, Austria), Thilo C. Fischer (Freising, Germany), and Barbara Meller (Salzburg, Austria), as well as Angela Bruch (Frankfurt a. M., Germany) and an anonymous referee.

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This article is a contribution to the special issue “The drowning swamp of Gračanica (Bosnia-Herzegovina) - a diversity hotspot from the middle Miocene in the Bugojno Basin”

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Butzmann, R., Göhlich, U.B., Bassler, B. et al. Macroflora and charophyte gyrogonites from the middle Miocene Gračanica deposits in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. Palaeobio Palaeoenv 100, 479–491 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12549-018-0356-x

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Keywords

  • Conifers
  • Dinarides Lake System (DLS)
  • Flowering plants
  • Charophyta
  • Rhamnuswarthae
  • Swampy lowland