Taxonomic study of the pigs (Suidae, Mammalia) from the late Middle Miocene of Gratkorn (Austria, Styria)

Abstract

The locality of Gratkorn of early late Sarmatian age (Styria, Austria, Middle Miocene) has yielded an abundant and diverse fauna, including invertebrates, micro-vertebrates and large mammals, as well as plants. As part of the taxonomical study of the mammals, two species of suids, are described here and assigned to Listriodon splendens Von Meyer, 1846 and Parachleuastochoerus steinheimensis (Fraas, 1870). As the generic affinities of the latter species were subject to debate, we present a detailed study of the evolution of the European Tetraconodontinae. The morphometric changes that occurred in a series of fossil samples covering the known temporal ranges of the species Pa. steinheimensis are documented. It is concluded that Parachleuastochoerus includes three species, namely Pa. steinheimensis, Pa. huenermanni and Pa. crusafonti. Evolutionary changes are recognised among the Pa. steinheimensis fossil samples. In addition, it is proposed that the subspecies Pa. steinheimensis olujici was present in Croatia long before the genus dispersed further into Europe.

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Acknowledgements

The community of Gratkorn financially supported excavation in 2008. We are indebted to the Wietersdorfer & Peggauer Zementwerke AG (especially Josef Plank). Norbert Winkler (Joanneum) meticulously prepared the specimens. We especially thank the reviewers K. Heissig (Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, München) and M. Orliac (Université Montpellier 2). The excavations of the Universalmuseum Joanneum were partly financed by the Land Steiermark/Wissenschaftsreferat. For the study of NHMW material Jérôme Prieto received support from the SYNTHESYS Project (ES-TAF-624), financed by the European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP6 “Structuring the European Research Area” Programme and from the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (CGL2011-28681). Jan van der Made received support from projects CGL2008-03881 and CGL2012-38434-C0 of the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad and its predecessor. Over many years, the following persons gave Jan van der Made and/or Manuela Aiglstorfer access to material which is studied here or used for comparison, or helped in any other way: J. Agustí, B. Alpagut, B. Azanza, S. Calzada, E. Cioppi, G. Daxner-Höck, B. Engesser, V. Fahlbusch, J. Franzen, L. Ginsburg, C. de Giuli, W. Gräf, P. Havlik, K. Heißig, E.P.J. Heizmann, K.A. Hünermann, M.S. Jaquat, T. Kaya, L. Kordos, K. Kowalski, Liu Liping, H. Lutz, S. Mayda, H. Mayr, S. Moyà Solà, R. Niederl, M. Philippe, K. Rauscher, G. Rößner, G. Saraç, G. Scharfe, F. Schrenk, P.Y. Sondaar, M. Telles Antunes, L. Via and J.F. de Villalta Comella.

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Correspondence to Jan van der Made.

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This article is an additional contribution to the special issue "The Sarmatian vertebrate locality Gratkorn, Styrian Basin".

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van der Made, J., Prieto, J., Aiglstorfer, M. et al. Taxonomic study of the pigs (Suidae, Mammalia) from the late Middle Miocene of Gratkorn (Austria, Styria). Palaeobio Palaeoenv 94, 595–617 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12549-014-0152-1

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Keywords

  • Listriodontinae
  • Tetraconodontinae
  • Middle Miocene
  • Sarmatian
  • Styrian Basin