Assessment of Wear Characteristics of Paper-Based Wet Friction Materials

  • Hak-Rae Cho
  • Youngwan Je
  • Koo-Hyun Chung
Regular Paper


A wet clutch synchronizes the speed and transmits power from an engine or motor to a drive train by mechanical coupling between a friction disk and a separate disk. The performance of a wet clutch may be significantly dependent on the friction and wear characteristics of paper-based friction materials. In this work, the wear characteristics of paper-based friction materials were experimentally investigated using a pin on reciprocating plate tribo-tester. In particular, the wear characteristics of paper-based friction materials with and without carbon fibers were assessed in a boundary lubrication state with respect to normal force and sliding speed. The tests found that the wear rate of paper-based friction materials increased with increasing normal force and sliding speed. The wear rates were found to vary in the range of 10-6-10-4 mm3/(N·cycle). In addition, paper-based friction material with carbon fiber exhibited relatively larger friction and wear characteristics than those without carbon fibers. It was observed that the carbon fibers were broken due to the sliding contact, which may have contributed to the wear progression. The outcomes of this work may be helpful in gaining a better understanding of the tribological characteristics of paper-based friction materials in order to enhance the lifetimes of wet clutches.


Carbon fiber Friction Wear rate Wet clutch 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Lam, R. C., Chavdar, B., and Newcomb, T., “New Generation Friction Materials and Technologies,” SAE Technical Paper, No. 2006-01-0150, 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kimura, Y. and Otani, C., “Contact and Wear of Paper-Based Friction Materials for Oil-Immersed Clutches-Wear Model for Composite Materials,” Tribology International, vol. 38, Nos. 11–12, pp. 943–950, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berglund, K., Marklund, P., Larsson, R., Pach, M., and Olsson, R., “Wet Clutch Degradation Monitored by Lubricant Analysis,” SAE Technical Paper, No. 201-01-2232, 2010.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ost, W., De Baets, P., and Degrieck, J., “The Tribological Behaviour of Paper Friction Plates for Wet Clutch Application Investigated on SAE# II and Pin-on-Disk Test Rigs,” Wear, vol. 249, Nos. 5–6, pp. 361–371, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Devlin, M. T., Tersigni, S. H., Senn, J., Turner, T. L., Jao, T.-C., and Yatsunami, K., “Effect of Friction Material on the Relative Contribution of Thin-Film Friction to Overall Friction in Clutches,” SAE Technical Paper, No. 2004-01-3025, 2004.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fujii, Y., Snyder, T., Waldecker, R., Tobler, W., Davis, L., Scherzer, M., and Zander, D., “Dynamic Characterization of Wet Friction Component under Realistic Transmission Shift Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper, No. 2006-01-0151, 2006.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marklund, P. and Larsson, R., “Wet Clutch Friction Characteristics Obtained from Simplified Pin on Disc Test,” Tribology International, vol. 41, Nos. 9–10, pp. 824–830, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eguchi, M. and Yamamoto, T., “Shear Characteristics of a Boundary Film for a Paper-Based Wet Friction Material: Friction and Real Contact Area Measurement,” Tribology International, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 327–335, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ingram, M., Spikes, H., Noles, J., and Watts, R., “Contact Properties of a Wet Clutch Friction Material,” Tribology International, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 815–821, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nyman, P., Mäki, R., Olsson, R., and Ganemi, B., “Influence of Surface Topography on Friction Characteristics in Wet Clutch Applications,” Wear, vol. 261, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fatima, N., Minami, I., Holmgren, A., Marklund, P., and Larsson, R., “Surface Chemistry of Wet Clutch Influenced by Water Contamination in Automatic Transmission Fluids,” Tribology International, vol. 96, pp. 395–401, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li, M., Khonsari, M., McCarthy, D., and Lundin, J., “On the Wear Prediction of the Paper-Based Friction Materialin a Wet Clutch,” Wear, Vols. 334-335, pp. 56–66, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lingesten, N., Marklund, P., Höglund, E., Lund, M., Lundin, J., and Mäki, R., “Apparatus for Continuous Wear Measurements during Wet Clutch Durability Tests,” Wear, vol. 288, pp. 54–61, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mäki, R., Nyman, P., Olsson, R., and Ganemi, B., “Measurement and Characterization of Anti-Shudder Properties in Wet Clutch Applications,” SAE Technical Paper, No. 2005-01-0878, 2005.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chung, K.-H., Lee, Y.-H., Kim, H.-J., and Kim, D.-E., “Fundamental Investigation of the Wear Progression of Silicon Atomic Force Microscope Probes,” Tribology Letters, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 315–325, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tran, D. K. and Chung, K.-H., “Simultaneous Measurement of Elastic Properties and Friction Characteristics of Nanowires Using Atomic Force Microscopy,” Experimental Mechanics, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 903–915, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chung, K.-H., Lee, S.-C., and Kim, D.-E., “Assessment of Surface Damage Mechanisms of Head/Disk Interface Using CSS and Drag Tests,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1714–1716, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chung, K. H., Han, D. K., Park, J. W., Lee, S. C., and Kim, D. E., “Feasible Method for Accelerated Testing of Head-Disk Interface Tribological Behavior,” Journal of Information Storage and Processing Systems, vol. 3, Nos. 1–2, pp. 17–25, 2001.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim, H., Kim, R.-U., Chung, K.-H., An, J.-H., Jeon, H.-G., and Kim, B.-J., “Effect of Test Parameters on Degradation of Polyurethane Elastomer for Accelerated Life Testing,” Polymer Testing, vol. 40, pp. 13–23, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Archard, J. F. and Hirst, W., “The Wear of Metals under Unlubricated Conditions,” Proc. of the Royal Society A, vol. 236, no. 1206, pp. 397–410, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gopal, P., Dharani, L. R., and Blum, F. D., “Load, Speed and Temperature Sensitivities of a Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Phenolic Friction Material,” Wear, Vols. 181-183, Part 2, pp. 913–921, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ivanović, V., Herold, Z., Deur, J., Hancock, M., and Assadian, F., “Experimental Characterization of Wet Clutch Friction Behaviors Including Thermal Dynamics,” SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 2, No. 2009-01-1360, pp. 1211–1220, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fei, J., Li, H.-J., Qi, L.-H., Fu, Y.-W., and Li, X.-T., “Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Paper-Based Friction Material: Study on Friction Stability as a Function of Operating Variables,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 130, No. 4, Paper No. 041605, 2008.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Archard, J., “Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 981–988, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rabinowicz, E., “Friction and Wear of Materials,” John Wiley & Sons, 1995.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kugimiya, T., Yoshimura, N., and Mitsui, J., “Tribology of Automatic Transmission Fluid,” Tribology Letters, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of UlsanUlsanRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations