Statistical Guideline #3: Designate and Justify Covariates A Priori, and Report Results With and Without Covariates


From the Editors: This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal was to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively, the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal’s official Instructions for Authors and also to serve as an independent resource. If you have ideas for a future topic, please email the Statistical Editor, Suzanne Segerstrom at

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Correspondence to Suzanne C. Segerstrom.

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Segerstrom, S.C. Statistical Guideline #3: Designate and Justify Covariates A Priori, and Report Results With and Without Covariates. Int.J. Behav. Med. 26, 577–579 (2019).

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  • Statistical guidelines
  • Covariates
  • Statistical control
  • Statistical adjustment