Prevalence of Alcohol Use, Sexual Risk Behavior, and HIV Among Russians in High-Risk Settings: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
- 393 Downloads
The purpose of this study was to examine the (a) prevalence of and (b) association between alcohol, risky sex, and HIV among Russians at risk for primary or secondary HIV transmission.
Electronic databases were searched to locate studies that sampled Russians, assessed alcohol use, and included either a behavioral measure of risk or a biological measure of HIV. Weighted mean (logit) effect sizes were calculated using random-effects assumptions. Moderator analyses were conducted using meta-regression.
Studies (19) sampled 12,916 Russians (M age = 29; 36 % women). Participants were recruited from clinical (52 %; e.g., sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic, drug treatment), other high-risk community settings (32 %; e.g., sexual/drug networks), or both (16 %). Findings indicate that a substantial proportion of the participants used alcohol (77 %; 55 % heavy drinking). One half of participants reported using condoms (52 %), but only 29 % used condoms consistently. Most participants reported drinking before sex (64 %). Of the studies testing for HIV, 10 % of participants tested positive. Meta-regression analyses indicated that hazardous/harmful alcohol use was associated with increased risky behaviors (i.e., multiple partners, inconsistent condom use).
These findings support the need for and potential benefit of addressing alcohol use in HIV prevention programming in Russia.
KeywordsAlcohol use Sexual risk behaviors HIV Russia Meta-analysis
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Research reported in this paper was supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the National Institutes of Health under award number R01 AA021355 to Lori A. J. Scott-Sheldon, PhD. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
- 1.UNAIDS. The Gap Report. 2014.Google Scholar
- 3.Pokrovsky V, Ladnaya NN, Buravtsova EV. HIV Infection: information bulletin #34. Russian Federal AIDS Center. 2010.Google Scholar
- 4.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rapid increase in HIV rates—Orel Oblast, Russian Federation, 1999-2001. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003;52(28):657–60.Google Scholar
- 5.Rakhmanova A, Vinogradova E, Yakovev A. The characteristics of HIV-infection in St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg, Russian Federation 2007.Google Scholar
- 7.World Health Organization. Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. 2014.Google Scholar
- 10.World Health Organization. WHO country profile: the Russian Federation. 2011. http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/profiles/rus.pdf. Accessed June 22, 2014.
- 15.Scott-Sheldon LAJ, Walstrom P, Carey KB, Johnson BT, Carey MP. Alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among individuals infected with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis 2012 to early 2013. Current HIV/AIDS reports. 2013;10(4):314–23. doi: 10.1007/s11904-013-0177-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 22.World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. 2014. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/128048/1/9789241507431_eng.pdf?ua = 1&ua = 1.
- 26.UNAIDS. 2015 Epidemiological slides—How AIDS Changed Everything report. 2015.Google Scholar
- 32.Abdala N, Zhan WH, Shaboltas AV, Skochilov RV, Kozlov AP, Krasnoselskikh TV. Efficacy of a brief HIV prevention counseling intervention among STI clinic patients in Russia: a randomized controlled trial. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(3):1016–24. doi: 10.1007/s10461-012-0311-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 34.Samet JH, Krupitsky EM, Cheng DM, et al. Mitigating risky sexual behaviors among Russian narcology hospital patients: the PREVENT (Partnership to Reduce the Epidemic Via Engagement in Narcology Treatment) randomized controlled trial. Addiction. 2008;103(9):1474–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 36.Lipsey MW, Wilson DB. Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- 37.Stata Corp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 12. College Station, TX: Stata Corp 2011.Google Scholar
- 39.World Health Organization. AUDIT: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, guidelines for use in primary care.. 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization,; 2001.Google Scholar
- 40.Wirtz AL, Zelaya CE, Latkin C, et al. Alcohol use and associated sexual and substance use behaviors among men who have sex with men in Moscow, Russia. AIDS Behav. 2015:1–14. doi: 10.1007/s10461-015-1066-2.
- 41.Cook RL, Comer DM, Wiesenfeld HC, et al. Alcohol and drug use and related disorders: an underrecognized health issue among adolescents and young adults attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33(9):565–70. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000206422.40319.54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 44.Niccolai LM, Shcherbakova IS, Toussova OV, Kozlov AP, Heimer R. The potential for bridging of HIV transmission in the Russian Federation: sex risk behaviors and HIV prevalence among drug users (DUs) and their non-DU sex partners. Journal of Urban Health. 2009;86(Suppl 1):131–43. doi: 10.1007/s11524-009-9369-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 47.IOGT International. HIV and Alcohol. Sweeden. 2009. http://ec.europa.eu/health/alcohol/docs/alcohol_lib23_en.pdf. Accessed March 10 2016.
- 51.Iguchi MY, Ober AJ, Berry SH, et al. Simultaneous recruitment of drug users and men who have sex with men in the United States and Russia using respondent-driven sampling: sampling methods and implications. Journal of Urban Health. 2009;86(Suppl 1):5–31. doi: 10.1007/s11524-009-9365-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 55.Odinokova V, Rusakova M, Urada LA, Silverman JG, Raj A. Police sexual coercion and its association with risky sex work and substance use behaviors among female sex workers in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2014;25(1):96–104. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2013.06.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 56.Shipitsyna E, Krasnoselskikh T, Zolotoverkhaya E, et al. Sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes regarding safe sex, and prevalence of non-viral sexually transmitted infections among attendees of youth clinics in St. Petersburg, Russia. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV. 2013;27(1):e75–84. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2012.04512.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 59.Zhan WH, Shaboltas AV, Skochilov RV, Kozlov AP, Krasnoselskikh TV, Abdala N. Alcohol misuse, drinking contexts and intimate partner violence in St. Petersburg, Russia: results from a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:629. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-629.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 60.Zhan WH, Shaboltas AV, Skochilov RV, Krasnoselskikh TV, Abdala N. History of childhood abuse, sensation seeking, and intimate partner violence under/not under the influence of a substance: a cross-sectional study in Russia. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e68027. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068027.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar