International Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 272–279 | Cite as

Psychometric Testing of the Chinese-Version Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavioral Questionnaire (GN-SBQ-C) for the Identification of Nicotine Dependence in Adult Smokers in Taiwan

  • Shu-Ching Chen
  • Hsiu-Fang Chen
  • Hsi-Ling Peng
  • Li-Yun Lee
  • Ting-Yu Chiang
  • Hui-Chuan Chiu



The purposes of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of the Chinese-version Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavioral Questionnaire (GN-SBQ-C) and assess the behavioral nicotine dependence among community-dwelling adult smokers in Taiwan.


The methods used were survey design, administration, and validation. A total of 202 adult smokers completed a survey to assess behavioral dependence, nicotine dependence, depression, social support, and demographic and smoking characteristics. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, internal consistency reliability, t test, exploratory factor analysis, independent t test, and Pearson product moment correlation.


The results showed that (1) the GN-SBQ-C has good internal consistency reliability and stability (2-week test-retest reliability); (2) the extracted one factor explained 41.80 % of the variance, indicating construct validity; (3) the scale has acceptable concurrent validity, with significant positive correlation between the GN-SBQ-C and nicotine dependence, depression, and time smoking and negative correlation between the GN-SBQ-C and age and exercise habit; and (4) the instrument has discriminant validity, supported by significant differences between those with high and low-to-moderate nicotine dependence, smokers greater than 43 years old and those 43 years old and younger, and those who smoked 10 years or less and those smoking more than 10 years.


The 11-item GN-SBQ-C has satisfactory psychometric properties when applied in a sample of Taiwanese adult smokers. The scale is feasible and valid to use to assess smoking behavioral dependence.


Smoking behavior Dependence Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavioral Questionnaire Psychometric testing Reliability Validity 



This study was supported by grants to Professor Shu-Ching Chen from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPF1E0011, NMRPF3E0151, and NMRPF3E0171) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 103-2314-B-255-004 and MOST 103-2629-B-255-001) of Taiwan. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of the adult smokers who participated in the study. The authors also thank Sarah Toombs Smith, PhD, ELS and Richard Sandore, MD, for assistance with English editing. Ting-Yu Chiang and Hui-Chuan Chiu contributed equally as co-corresponding authors to this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of Interest

Shu-Ching Chen has received research grants from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan. Shu-Ching Chen declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


This study was funded by CMRPF1E0011, NMRPF3E0151, NMRPF3E0171, MOST 103-2314-B-255-004, and MOST 103-2629-B-255-001.


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Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shu-Ching Chen
    • 1
    • 4
  • Hsiu-Fang Chen
    • 1
  • Hsi-Ling Peng
    • 2
  • Li-Yun Lee
    • 3
  • Ting-Yu Chiang
    • 4
  • Hui-Chuan Chiu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Nursing, College of NursingChang Gung University of Science and TechnologyTaoyuanTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of NursingCardinal Tien Junior College of Healthcare and ManagementTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of NursingChina Medical University Beigang Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan and School of Nursing, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health SciencesTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Medical Foundation, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial HospitalTaoyuanTaiwan

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