Advertisement

Distribution of benthic foraminifera along the Iranian coast

  • Abduljamiu O. Amao
  • Michael A. Kaminski
  • Masoud Asgharian Rostami
  • Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy Gharaie
  • Razyeh Lak
  • Fabrizio Frontalini
Original Paper
  • 75 Downloads

Abstract

This study focuses on the distribution of benthic foraminifera along the Iranian coast of the Gulf, extending over 1000 km from the northeast close to Shatt Al-Arab/Arvand Rud to the southeast near the Strait of Hormuz where it connects to the Indian Ocean. The Gulf is a naturally stressed environment due to extremes of salinity and temperature and anthropogenically affected by rapid urbanization, maritime transport, desalination plants, and oil platforms. Historical records and distributional studies have commonly underestimated the benthic foraminiferal diversity in the Gulf. Thirty-two samples collected from depths between 20 and 45 m were analyzed for total (unstained) foraminiferal assemblages. A total of 221 benthic foraminiferal species and subspecies belonging to 69 genera, 34 families, and 6 orders were recognized. The assemblages are dominated by hyaline taxa (49%) and porcelaneous foraminifera (36%), while agglutinated foraminifera represent only a minor part (15%). The ten most abundant species are Nonion sp. 1 (5.8%), Quinqueloculina sp. 1 (4.7%), Asterorotalia dentata (4.2%), Bolivina cf. B. persiensis (3.9%), Asterorotalia sp. 3 (3.5%), Rotalinoides gaimardi (3.4%), Ammonia sp. 1 (3.3%), Quinqueloculina sp. 8 (3.3%), Bolivina cf. B. striatula (3.0%), and Nonion sp. 2 (2.8%). We speculate that increase of finer sediments (mud), availability of nutrients, and the presence of oxygen are factors controlling the diversity and distribution of benthic foraminifera. The current thermal regime in the Gulf has been cited as a model for the tropical ocean in 2090–2099. In light of it, foraminiferal assemblage structure, composition, and distribution may provide an insight into the nature of biotic response to future climate change in the Gulf region under conditions of global warming and a baseline for future comparison within and beyond the Gulf. This study also updates the knowledge on the types and distributions of benthic foraminiferal groups in this poorly known area.

Keywords

The Gulf Arabian Gulf Persian Gulf Benthic foraminifera Diversity Iranian coast 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Marine Geology Department of Geological Survey of Iran for the sediment sampling and Prof. Pamela Hallock Muller for suggesting additional improvements and her expert editorial guidance. We also thank Dr. Maria Virgínia Alves Martins and the two other anonymous reviewers for their suggested improvements and insights.

Funding

We thank the Deanship of Scientific Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, for funding through Projects IN121028 and IN161002.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Sampling and field studies

All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the acknowledgements, if applicable.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

12526_2018_879_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (271 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 271 kb)

References

  1. Ahmed MAOS (1991) Recent benthic foraminifers from Tarut Bay, Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. J Micropalaeontol 10:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albani AD, Yassini I (1993) Taxonomy and distribution of the Family Elphidiidae (Foraminiferida) from shallow Australian waters. Centre for Marine Science, Technical Contribution 5:1–49Google Scholar
  3. Alsharhan A, Kendall CSC (2003) Holocene coastal carbonates and evaporites of the southern Arabian Gulf and their ancient analogues. Earth Sci Rev 61:191–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Zamel A, Al-Sarawi M, Khader S, Al-Rifaiy I (2009) Benthic foraminifera from polluted marine environment of Sulaibikhat Bay (Kuwait). Environ Monit Assess 149:395–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Zamel A, Cherif O, Al-Rifaiy I (1996) Tidal creeks foraminiferal distribution in Khor Al-Mufateh and Khor Al-Malaha, Khiran area, southeast Kuwait. Revue de Micropalaeontologie 39:3–26Google Scholar
  6. Al-Zamel Z, Cherif O (1998) Subtidal foraminiferal assemblages of the western part of the Shatt Al-Arab Delta, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. J Foraminifer Res 28:327–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amao AO, Kaminski MA (2016) Pseudonubeculina arabica n. gen. n. sp., a new Holocene benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Gulf. Micropaleontology 62(1):81–86Google Scholar
  8. Amao AO, Kaminski MA, Setoyama E (2016) Diversity of foraminifera in a shallow restricted lagoon in Bahrain. Micropalaeontology 62:197–211Google Scholar
  9. Basson PW, Murray J (1995) Temporal variations in four species of intertidal foraminifera, Bahrain, Arabian gulf. Micropaleontology 41:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cherif OH, Al-Ghadban A-N, Al-Rifaiy IA (1997) Distribution of foraminifera in the Arabian Gulf. Micropaleontology 43:253–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarke MH, Keij A (1973) Organisms as producers of carbonate sediment and indicators of environment in the southern Persian Gulf. In: Purser BH (ed) The Persian Gulf. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 33–56Google Scholar
  12. Debenay J-P (2012) A guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia. Marseille: IRD Editions, pp 378Google Scholar
  13. Frontalini F, Kaminski MA, Mikellidou I, du Châtelet EA (2015) Checklist of benthic foraminifera (class Foraminifera: d’Orbigny 1826; phylum Granuloreticulosa) from Saros Bay, northern Aegean Sea: a biodiversity hotspot. Mar Biodivers 45:549–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haake F (1975) Miliolinen (Foram) in oberflachensedimenten des Persischen Golfes. “Meteor” Forsch-Ergebnisse 21:15–51Google Scholar
  15. Haake FW (1970) Zur Tiefenverteilung von Miliolinen (Foram.) im Persischen Golf. Paläontol Z 44:196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hayward BW, Grenfell HR, Reid CM, Hayward KA (1999) Recent New Zealand shallow-water benthic foraminifera: Taxonomy, ecologic distribution, biogeography, and use in paleoenvironmental assessment. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Monographs 21, New Zealand Geological Survey Paleontological Bulletin, 75:1–258Google Scholar
  17. Hayward BW, Hollis CC, Grenfell HR (1997) Recent Elphidiidae (Foraminiferida) of the south-west Pacific and fossil Elphidiidae of New Zealand. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Monographs 16, New Zealand Geological Survey Paleontological Bulletin, 72:1–166.Google Scholar
  18. Hitmi A, Hitmi H (2000) Recent benthic foraminifera from the local water of Qatar, Arabian Gulf. Qatar Univ Sci J 20:167–179Google Scholar
  19. Horton T, Kroh A, Bailly N, et al (2017) World register of marine species (WoRMS). WoRMS Editorial Board http://www.marinespecies.org
  20. Hottinger L, Halicz E, Reiss Z, Drobne K (1993) Recent Foraminiferida from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnostiGoogle Scholar
  21. John V, Coles S, Abozed A (1990) Seasonal cycles of temperature, salinity and water masses of the western Arabian Gulf. Oceanol Acta 13:273–281Google Scholar
  22. Joydas TV, Qurban MA, Manikandan KP et al (2015) Status of macrobenthic communities in the hypersaline waters of the Gulf of Salwa, Arabian Gulf. J Sea Res 99:34–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kassambara A, Mundt F (2016) factoextra: extract and visualize the results of multivariate data analyses. http://www.sthda.com/english/rpkgs/factoextra
  24. Kassler P (1973) The structural and geomorphic evolution of the Persian Gulf. In: Purser BH (ed) The Persian Gulf. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 11–32Google Scholar
  25. Kim S, Frontalini F, Martins V, Lee W (2016) Modern benthic foraminiferal diversity of Jeju Island and initial insights into the total foraminiferal diversity of Korea. Mar Biodivers 46:337–354Google Scholar
  26. Lê S, Josse J, Husson F (2008) FactoMineR: a package for multivariate analysis. J Stat Softw 25:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Loeblich AR, Tappan H (1994) Foraminifera of the Sahul Shelf and Timor Sea. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research Special Publication, 31, pp 661Google Scholar
  28. Lutze G (1974a) Live (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera of surface sediments of the Persian Gulf (table 1). In: in supplement to: Lutze, GF (1974): Benthische Foraminiferen in Oberflachen-Sedimenten des Persischen Golfes. Teil 1: Arten. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebruder Borntrager, Berlin, Stuttgart, C17, 1–66. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.509835
  29. Lutze G (1974b) Dead benthic foraminifera of surface sediment of the Persian Gulf (table 2). In: in supplement to: Lutze, GF (1974): Benthische Foraminiferen in Oberflächen-Sedimenten des Persischen Golfes. Teil 1: Arten. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C17, 1–66. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.509839
  30. Lutze G (1974c) Benthische Foraminiferen in Oberflächen-Sedimenten des Persischen Golfes. “Meteor” Forschungsergeb 17:1–66Google Scholar
  31. Lutze GF, Grabert B, Seibold E (1971) Sediment fraction analysis and population density of living larger foraminifera in the Persian Gulf (table 1A, B). In: supplement to: Lutze, GF et al. (1971): Lebendbeobachtungen an Gro\s s-Foraminiferen aus dem Persischen Golf. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C6, 21–40. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.112554
  32. McCulloch IA (1977) Qualitative observations on Recent foraminiferal tests with emphasis on the eastern Pacific. University of Southern California pp 1045Google Scholar
  33. Murray J (1991) Ecology and palaeoecology of benthic foraminifera. Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, EssexGoogle Scholar
  34. Murray J (1965a) The foraminiferida of the Persian Gulf. 2. The Abu Dhabi region. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol Paleogeogr 1:307–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Murray J (1965b) The foraminiferida of the Persian Gulf Part I Rosalina adhaerens sp nov. J Nat History 8:77–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Murray J (1966a) The foraminiferida of the Persian Gulf. 3. The Halat al Bahrani region. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 2:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murray J (1966b) The Foraminiferida of the Persian Gulf. 4. Khor al Bazam. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 2:153–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Murray J (1966c) The Foraminiferida of the Persian Gulf. 5. The shelf off the trucial coast. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 2:267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Murray J (1970a) The foraminifera of the hypersaline Abu Dhabi lagoon, Persian Gulf. Lethaia 3:51–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Murray J (1970b) The Foraminiferida of the Persian Gulf: 6. Living forms in the Abu Dhabi region. J Nat Hist 4:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Murray J (2006) Ecology and applications of benthic foraminifera. University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Murray JW (2007) Biodiversity of living benthic foraminifera: how many species are there? Mar Micropaleontol 64:163–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Naser HA (2011) Effects of reclamation on macrobenthic assemblages in the coastline of the Arabian gulf: a microcosm experimental approach. Mar Pollut Bull 62:520–524CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Parker JH (2009) Taxonomy of foraminifera from Ningaloo Reef, Western Austr Memoirs Assoc Austr Palaeontol 1–12Google Scholar
  45. Parker JH, Gischler E (2015) Modern and relict foraminiferal biofacies from a carbonate ramp, offshore Kuwait, northwest Persian Gulf. Facies 61:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Purser BH (1973) The Persian Gulf: Holocene carbonate sedimentation and diagenesis in a shallow epicontinental sea. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Purser BH, Evans G (1973) Regional sedimentation along the Trucial coast, SE Persian Gulf. In: Purser BH (ed) The Persian Gulf. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 211–231Google Scholar
  48. Purser BH, Seibold E (1973) The principal environmental factors influencing Holocene sedimentation and diagenesis in the Persian Gulf. In: Purser BH (ed) The Persian Gulf. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  49. QGIS A (2016) Free and open source geographic information system. Open Source Geospatial Foundation ProjectGoogle Scholar
  50. Reynolds RM (1993) Physical oceanography of the Gulf, strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman—results from the Mt Mitchell expedition. Mar Pollut Bull 27:35–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Riegl B, Poiriez A, Janson X, Bergman KL (2010) The gulf: facies belts, physical, chemical, and biological parameters of sedimentation on a carbonate ramp. In: Westphal H, Riegl B, Eberli GP (eds) Carbonate depositional systems: assessing dimensions and controlling parameters. Springer Science & Business Media, New York, pp 145–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Riegl BM, Purkis SJ (2012) Coral reefs of the Gulf: adaptation to climatic extremes in the world’s hottest sea. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  53. Sabbatini A, Morigi C, Nardelli MP, Negri A (2013) Foraminifera. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds) The Mediterranean Sea: its history and present challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, p 237Google Scholar
  54. Saidova KM (2010) Benthic foraminifer communities of the Persian Gulf. Oceanology 50:61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Seibold E, Diester L, Fütterer D et al (1973) Holocene sediments and sedimentary processes in the Iranian part of the Persian Gulf. In: The Persian Gulf. Springer, pp 57–80Google Scholar
  56. Sheppard C, Al-Husiani M, Al-Jamali F et al (2010) The Gulf: a young sea in decline. Mar Pollut Bull 60:13–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Sheppard C, Price A, Roberts C (1992) Marine ecology of the Arabian region: patterns and processes in extreme tropical environments. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  58. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M et al (2007) Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, 2007. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  59. Zheng S (1988) The agglutinated and porcelaneous foraminifera of the East China Sea. Science Press, pp 337Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abduljamiu O. Amao
    • 1
  • Michael A. Kaminski
    • 1
  • Masoud Asgharian Rostami
    • 2
  • Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy Gharaie
    • 3
  • Razyeh Lak
    • 4
  • Fabrizio Frontalini
    • 5
  1. 1.Geosciences Department, College of Petroleum Engineering and GeosciencesKing Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM)DhahranSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  4. 4.Research Institute for Earth SciencesGeological Survey of IranTehranIran
  5. 5.Dipartimento di Scienze Pure e Applicate (DiSPeA)Università degli Studi di Urbino “Carlo Bo”UrbinoItaly

Personalised recommendations