Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 763–782 | Cite as

Biogeographic distributions of Cytheropteron species (Ostracoda) in Icelandic waters (sub-polar North Atlantic)

  • Anna B. Jöst
  • Moriaki Yasuhara
  • Hisayo Okahashi
  • Saskia Brix
  • Pedro Martínez Arbizu
  • Alexandra Ostmann
Biodiversity of Icelandic Waters
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biodiversity of Icelandic Waters


The ostracod genus Cytheropteron (Ostracoda: Crustacea) has been widely used for paleoenvironmental, paleoceanographic, and paleobiogeographic studies. But species-level data remain limited, especially for deepwater species. Here, we show the depth and spatial distribution patterns of 33 species of the ostracod genus Cytheropteron found in recent surface sediments of Icelandic waters. Species-specific depth ranges may serve as a useful tool in ostracod-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Biogeographic distributions of Cytheropteron species indicate the shallow Greenland-Iceland-Faroe Ridge as the major barrier for the distribution of deep-sea organisms.


Cytheropteron Depth distribution IceAGE project Recent Ostracoda Taxonomy 



We appreciate the continuous support and cooperation of all our colleagues from the IceAGE project; the help of the captains and crew of R/V Meteor and R/V Poseidon in sample collection; the organization skills and logistics management of the DZMB staff and Jörundur Svavarsson; the help of Wiebke Bauernfeind, Sahar Khodami, and Sarah Schnurr in MUC sampling; and the technical assistance of Laura Wong, Cecily Law, and Maria Lo. We also thank Anna Jazdzewska and Lena Menzel for editing, and Cristianini Trescastro Bergue and an anonymous reviewer for their valuable comments.

Funding information

This study was partially supported by grants from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (project code: HKU 17306014), the Seed Funding Program for Basic Research of the University of Hong Kong (project codes: 201210159043, 201511159075, 201411159017), and the Germany/Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme (project code: G_HK044/11 to M.Y. and DAAD 54367105 to S.B.).


  1. Alvarez Zarikian CA, Stepanova AY, Grützner J (2009) Glacial-interglacial variability in deep sea ostracod assemblage composition at IODP Site U1314 in the subpolar North Atlantic. Mar Geol 258:69–87. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brandt A, Gooday AJ, Nunes Brandão S, Brix S, Brökeland W, Cedhagen T, Choudhury M, Cornelius N, Danis B, De Mesel I, Diaz RJ, Gillan DC, Ebbe B, Howe JA, Janussen D, Kaiser S, Linse K, Malyutina M, Pawlowski J, Raupach M, Vanreusel A (2007) First insights into the biodiversity and biogeography of the Southern Ocean deep sea. Nature 447:307–311. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brix S, Svavarsson J (2009) Distribution and diversity of desmosomatid and nannoniscid isopods on the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroe Ridge. Polar Biol 33:515–530. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brix S, Bauernfeind W, Brenke N, Blazewicz M, Borges V, Buldt K, Cannon J, Díaz Agras G, Fiege D, Fiorentino D, Haraldsdóttir S, Hoffmann S, Holst S, Hüttmann F, Jaskulke K, Jennings RM, Kocot KM, Khodami S, Lucas Rodriguez Y, Martínez Arbizu P, Meißner K, Mikkelsen NT, Miller M, Murray A, Neumann H, Ostmann A, Riehl T, Schnurr S, Svavarsson J, Yasuhara M (2012) Overflow, circulation and biodiversity—cruise no. M85/3—August 27–September 28, 2011—Reykjavik (Iceland)–Cuxhaven (Germany). METEOR Berichte M85/3, 41 pp.
  5. Brix S, Martínez Arbizu P, Svavarsson J, Kenning M, Jennings R, Holst S, Cannon J, Eilertsen M, Schnurr S, Jeskulke K, Hoffmann S (2013) IceAGE-Icelandic marine animals: genetics and ecology, cruise no. POS456, IceAGE2, 20.07. 2013–04.08. Kiel (Germany)-Reykjavik (Iceland) 17 pp.
  6. Brix S, Meißner K, Stransky B, Halanych KM (2014) The IceAGE project—a follow up of BIOICE: preface. Pol. Polar Res. 35:141–150. Google Scholar
  7. Brouwers EM, Cronin TM, Horne DJ, Lord AR (2000) Recent shallow marine ostracods from high latitudes: implications for Late Pliocene and Quaternary paleoclimatology. Boreas 29:127–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cronin TM, Raymo ME, Kyle KP (1996) Pliocene (3.2–2.4 Ma) ostracode faunal cycles and deep ocean circulation, North Atlantic Ocean. Geology 24:695–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cronin TM, DeMartino DM, Dwyer GS, Rodríguez-Lázaro J (1999) Deep-sea ostracode species diversity: response to Late Quaternary climate change. Mar Micropaleontol 37:231–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cronin TM, DeNinno LH, Polyak L, Caverly EK, Poore RZ, Brenner A, Rodriguez-Lazaro J, Marzen RE (2014) Quaternary ostracode and foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoceanography in the western Arctic Ocean. Mar Micropaleontol 111:118–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DeNinno LH, Cronin TM, Rodriguez-Lazaro J, Brenner A (2015) An early to mid-Pleistocene deep Arctic Ocean ostracode fauna with North Atlantic affinities. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 419:90–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Didié C, Bauch HA (2000) Species composition and glacial-interglacial variations in the ostracode fauna of the northeast Atlantic during the past 200,000 years. Mar Micropaleontol 40:105–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Didié C, Bauch HA, Helmke JP (2002) Late Quaternary deep-sea ostracodes in the polar and subpolar North Atlantic: paleoecological and paleoenvironmental implications. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 184:195–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gemery L, Cronin TM, Briggs WM, Brouwers EM, Schornikov EI, Stepanova A, Wood AM, Yasuhara M (2017) An Arctic and subarctic ostracode database: biogeographic and paleoceanographic applications. Hydrobiologia 786:59–95. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hartmann G (1975) Ostracoda, in: Gruner, H. E. (Ed.), Dr. H. G. Bronns Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Fünfter Band: Arthropoda I. Abteilung: Crustacea 2. Buch, IV. Teil 4. Lieferung, Gustav Fischer, Jena, p. 569–786Google Scholar
  16. Jones R, Whatley RC, Cronin TM (1998) Zoogeographical distribution of deep-water Ostracoda from the Arctic Ocean, in: Crasquin-Soleau, S., Braccini, E., Lethiers, F. (Eds.), What about Ostracoda! (Bulletin du Centre de Recherches Elf Exploration Production, Mémorie 20). Proceedings of the 3rd European Ostracodologists Meeting, Elf ep-Editions, Pau, p 83–90Google Scholar
  17. Jones RL, Whatley RC, Cronin TM, Dowsett HJ (1999) Reconstructing late Quaternary deep-water masses in the eastern Arctic Ocean using benthonic Ostracoda. Mar Micropaleontol 37:251–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaiser S, Brandão SN, Brix S, Barnes DKA, Bowden DA, Ingels J, Leese F, Schiaparelli S, Arango CP, Badhe R, Bax N, Blazewicz-Paszkowycz M, Brandt A, Brenke N, Catarino AI, David B, De Ridder C, Dubois P, Ellingsen KE, Glover AG, Griffiths HJ, Gutt J, Halanych KM, Havermans C, Held C, Janussen D, Lörz A-N, Pearce DA, Pierrat B, Riehl T, Rose A, Sands CJ, Soler-Membrives A, Schüller M, Strugnell JM, Vanreusel A, Veit-Köhler G, Wilson NG, Yasuhara M (2013) Patterns, processes and vulnerability of Southern Ocean benthos: a decadal leap in knowledge and understanding. Mar Biol 160:2295–2317. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Linse K, Griffiths HJ, Barnes DKA, Clarke A (2006) Biodiversity and biogeography of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic mollusca. Deep Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr 53:985–1008. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mazzini I (2004) Taxonomy, biogeography, and ecology of Quaternary benthic Ostracoda (Crustacea) from circumpolar deep water of the Emerald Basin (Southern Ocean) and the S Tasman Rise (Tasman Sea). Senckenberg Marit 35:1–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meißner K, Brenke N, Svavarsson J (2014) Benthic habitats around Iceland investigated during the IceAGE expeditions. Pol Polar Res 35:179–204. Google Scholar
  22. Ostmann A, Schnurr S, Martínez Arbizu P (2014) Marine environment around Iceland: hydrography, sediments and first predictive models of Icelandic deep-sea sediment characteristics. Pol Polar Res 35:151–176. Google Scholar
  23. QGIS Development Team 2009. QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project.
  24. Rex MA, McClain CR, Johnson NA, Etter RJ, Allen JA, Bouchet P, Waren A (2005), A source-sink hypothesis for abyssal biodiversity. Am Nat 165:163–178Google Scholar
  25. Stepanova AY, Taldenkova E, Bauch HA (2003) Recent Ostracoda from the Laptev Sea (Arctic Siberia): species assemblages and some environmental relationships. Mar Micropaleontol 48:23–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stepanova AY, Taldenkova E, Bauch HA (2004) Ostracod species of the genus Cytheropteron from Late Pleistocene, Holocene and recent sediments of the Laptev Sea (Arctic Siberia). Rev Esp Micropaleontol 36:83–108Google Scholar
  27. Whatley RC, Coles GP (1987) The Late Miocene to Quaternary Ostracoda of leg 94, deep sea drilling project. Rev Esp Micropaleontol 19:33–70Google Scholar
  28. Whatley RC, Eynon MP (1996) Four new Arctic deepwater ostracod species from East Greenland. Proc. 2nd Eur. Ostracodologists Meet. Glasg 1993:195–200Google Scholar
  29. Whatley RC, Masson DG (1979) The ostracod genus Cytheroptheron from the Quaternary and recent of Great Britain. Rev Esp Micropaleontol 11:223–277Google Scholar
  30. Whatley RC, Staunton M, Kaesler, RL (1997) The depth distribution of recent marine Ostracoda from the southern Strait of Magellan. J Micropalaeontol 16:121–130Google Scholar
  31. Whatley RC, Eynon MP, Moguilevsky A (1998) The depth distribution of Ostracoda from the Greenland Sea. J Micropalaeontol 17:15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yasuhara M, Danovaro R (2016) Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity: temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity. Biol Rev 91:275–287. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Yasuhara M, Okahashi H (2014) Quaternary deep-sea ostracode taxonomy of ocean drilling program site 980, Eastern North Atlantic. J Paleontol 88:770–785. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yasuhara M, Okahashi H (2015) Late Quaternary deep-sea ostracod taxonomy of the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. J Micropalaeontol 34:21–49.
  35. Yasuhara M, Cronin TM, deMenocal PB, Okahashi H, Linseley BK (2008) Abrupt climate change and collapse of deep-sea ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105:1556–1560. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Yasuhara M, Hunt G, Cronin TM, Okahashi H (2009a) Temporal latitudinal-gradient dynamics and tropical instability of deep-sea species diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106:21717–21720. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Yasuhara M, Okahashi H, Cronin TM (2009b) Taxonomy of Quaternary deep-sea ostracods from the Western North Atlantic Ocean. Palaeontology 52:879–931. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yasuhara M, Hunt G, Cronin TM, Hokansishi N, Kawahata H, Tsujimoto A, Ishitake M (2012) Climatic forcing of Quaternary deep-sea benthic communities in the North Pacific Ocean. Paleobiology 38:162–179. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yasuhara M, Grimm M, Nunes Brandão S, Jöst AB, Okahashi H, Iwatani H, Ostmann A, Martínez Arbizu P (2014a) Deep-sea benthic ostracodes from multiple core and epibenthic sledge samples in Icelandic waters. Pol Polar Res 35:341–360. Google Scholar
  40. Yasuhara M, Okahashi H, Cronin TM, Rasmussen TL, Hunt G (2014b) Response of deep-sea biodiversity to abrupt deglacial and Holocene climate changes in the North Atlantic Ocean. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 23:957–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yasuhara M, Stepanova AY, Okahashi H, Cronin TM, Brouwers EM (2014c) Taxonomic revision of deep-sea Ostracoda from the Arctic Ocean. Micropaleontology 60:399–444Google Scholar
  42. Zhao Q, Whatley R, Zhou B (2000) The taxonomy and distribution of recent species of the ostracod genus Cytheropteron in the South China Sea. Rev Español Micropaleontol 32:259–281Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna B. Jöst
    • 1
    • 2
  • Moriaki Yasuhara
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hisayo Okahashi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Saskia Brix
    • 3
  • Pedro Martínez Arbizu
    • 4
  • Alexandra Ostmann
    • 4
  1. 1.The Swire Institute of Marine ScienceThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  3. 3.German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research (DZMB)Senckenberg Research InstituteHamburgGermany
  4. 4.German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research (DZMB)Senckenberg Research InstituteWilhelmshavenGermany

Personalised recommendations