Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 443–450 | Cite as

Occurrence and redescription of Anilocra leptosoma Bleeker, 1857 (Crustacea: isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitizing the clupeid fish Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes) from the Arabian Sea, India

  • Panakkool-Thamban AneeshEmail author
  • Ameri Kottarathil HelnaEmail author
  • Jean-Paul Trilles
  • Kailash Chandra
Original Paper


The present study reports the occurrence of Anilocra leptosoma Bleeker, 1857 parasitizing a new host fish, Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes) in India. Until now, the occurrence of Anilocra leptosoma from Indian waters was not clearly identified. In the present study, the general morphology and appendages of the female stage of this species are re-described according to live specimens collected from Indian fishes. The voucher specimens are deposited in National Zoological Collections of Zoological Survey of India (NZC-ZSI). The important characters to distinguish A. leptosoma from other species in the genus include a body less than four times as long as wide; antennule article 3 antero-distal margin weakly produced, 1.2–1.4 times as wide as long; pleonite not concealed by pereonite 7, pleonite 1 lateral margin posteriorly produced; pereopods 1–4 with three nodules on dactylus; pleotelson ovate, lateral margins converging smoothly to caudo-medial point.


Anilocra leptosoma Cymothoidae records and hosts Tenualosa toli Redescription Arabian Sea India 



The authors are thankful to the director of the Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata for his encouragement and providing facilities to carry out the taxonomic description of the research work. The first author is greatly indebted to Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India for financial support through Post-Doctoral Fellowship ( Further, we are gratefully acknowledging the effort taken by the anonymous reviewer for his/her critical reviewing of the manuscript and making valuable suggestions for the improvement of the manuscript.


  1. Aneesh PT, Sudha K, Arshad K, Anilkumar G, Trilles JP (2013) Seasonal fluctuation of the prevalence of cymothoids representing the genus Nerocila (Crustacea, isopoda), parasitizing commercially exploited marine fishes from the Malabar coast, India. Acta Parasitol 58:80–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aneesh PT, Sudha K, Helna AK, Anilkumar G, Trilles JP (2015) Cymothoa frontalis, a cymothoid isopod parasitizing the belonid fish, Strongylura strongylura from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India): redescription, prevalence and life cycle. Zool Stud 54:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aneesh PT, Sudha K, Helna AK, Anilkumar G (2016) Mothocya renardi (Bleeker, 1857) (Crustacea: isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitizing Strongylura leiura (Bleeker) (Belonidae) off the Malabar coast of India: Redescription, occurrence and life-cycle. Syst Parasitol 93(6):583–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aneesh PT, Valarmathi K, Santanu M (2017a) Re-description of Nerocila recurvispina Schiödte and Meinert, 1881: (Crustacea: isopoda) from Hooghly river Kolkata, India. Mar Biodiv (Published online: 27/09/2017).
  5. Aneesh PT, Helna AK, Sudha K, Anilkumar G (2017b) First record of Glossobius auritus Bovallius 1885 and Glossobius hemiramphi Williams and Williams 1985 (Crustacea: isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitizing the marine fishes from Indian coast. Thalassas (Published online: 10/10/2017).
  6. Barnard KH (1925) Contributions to the crustacean fauna of South Africa. No. 9. Further additions to the list of isopoda. Ann S Afr Mus 20:381–410Google Scholar
  7. Barnard KH (1936) Isopods collected by R.I.M.S. Investigator. Records of the Indian Museum. Calcutta 38:147–191Google Scholar
  8. Bleeker P (1857) Recherches sur les Crustacés de l’Inde archipélagique. II. Sur les Isopodes Cymothoadiens de l’archipel Indien. Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch-Indië, Batavia, Verhandelingen 2:20–40Google Scholar
  9. Boone PL (1935) Scientific results of the world cruise of the yacht Alva 1931, William K. Vanderbilt, commanding. Crustacea and Echinodermata, vol 6. Bulletin of the Vanderbilt Museum, Huntington, pp 1–264 pl 1–96Google Scholar
  10. Bowman TE, Tareen IU (1983) Cymothoidae from fishes of Kuwait (Arabian gulf) (Crustacea, isopoda). Smith Contr Zool 382:1–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bruce NL (1987a) Australian Pleopodias Richardson 1910 and Anilocra leach 1818 (isopoda: Cymothoidae), crustacean parasites of marine fishes. Rec Aus Mus 39:85–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruce NL (1987b) Australian species of Nerocila leach, 1818, and Creniola n. Gen. (isopoda: Cymothoidae), crustacean parasites of marine fishes. Rec Aus Mus 39:355–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruce NL, Bowman TE (1989) Species of the parasitic isopod genera Ceratothoa and Glossobius (Crustacea: Cymothoidae) from the mouths of flying fishes and halfbeaks (Beloniformes). Smith Contr Zool 489:1–28Google Scholar
  14. Bruce, N. L., Schotte, M. (2008). Anilocra Leach, 1818. In: Boyko, C.B; Bruce, N.L.; Hadfield, K.A.; Merrin, K.L.; Ota, Y.; Poore, G.C.B.; Taiti, S.; Schotte, M. & Wilson, G.D.F. (Eds) (2008 onwards). World Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at (accessed on 2017–07-20)
  15. Bruce NL, Martin MB, Hadfield KA, Nowak BF (2016) Redescription of the fish parasitic “tongue biter” Cymothoa rhina Schiödte & Meinert, 1884 (Crustacea: isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Singapore. R B Zool 34:258–269Google Scholar
  16. Brusca RC (1981) A monograph on the isopoda Cymothoidae (Crustacea) of the eastern Pacific. Zool J Linnaean Soc 73:117–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brusca RC, Iverson EW (1985) A guide to the marine isopod Crustacea of Pacific Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 33:1–77Google Scholar
  18. Dana JD (1853) Crustacea, Part 11. United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, under the command of Charles Wilkes. U.S.N. 14:689–1618Google Scholar
  19. Desmarest AG (1825) Considérations générales sur la classe des crustacés, et description des espèces de ces animaux, qui vivent dans la mer, sur les côtes, ou dans les eaux douces de la France. F. J. Levrault, Paris 56 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ellis JP (1981) Some type specimens of isopoda (Flabellifera) in the British museum (natural history), and the isopods in the Linnaean collection. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist 40:121–128Google Scholar
  21. Eschmeyer, W.N. (2015). Catalog of fishes: Genera, Species Reference. Available from:
  22. Froese, R., Pauly, D. (2015). Fishbase. Version (02/2015) World Wide Web electronic publication. Available from: http:// (accessed March 2017)
  23. Gerstaecker A (1882) Sechste Ordnung. Isopoda-Asseln [Part] In: Bronn HG (Ed.) Klassen und Ordnung des ThierReichs, wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Funfter Band 11. Abtheilung. Gliederfiissler: Arthropoda. Crustacea. (Zweite Hiilfte: Malacostraca) 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Leiferung, 97–278Google Scholar
  24. Hadfield KA, Bruce NL, Smit NJ (2013) Review of the fish-parasitic genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 (isopoda, Cymothoidae, Crustacea) from the southwestern Indian Ocean, including a new species from South Africa. Zootaxa 3640(2):152–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hadfield KA, Bruce NL, Smit NJ (2014) Review of the fish parasitic genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, isopoda, Cymothoidae) from South Africa, including the description of two new species. ZooKeys 400:1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hale HM (1926) Review of Australian isopods of the Cymothoid group. Trans R Soc S Aust 50:201–234Google Scholar
  27. Herklots JA (1870) Deux nouveaux genres de Crustacés vivant en parasites sur des poissons. Epichthyes et Ichthyoxenos. Archiv Neerlandaise Sciences Exact et Naturelle 5:120–137Google Scholar
  28. Horton T, Okamura B (2001) Cymothoid isopod parasites in aquaculture: a review and case study of a Turkish sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus auritus) farm. Dis Aquat Org 46:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jayadev BS, Sanjeevaraj PJ (1984) Isopod parasites of fish of Pulicat Lake. Proceedings Symposium of Coastal Aquaculture (Fin Fish) 3:818–823Google Scholar
  30. Kensley B (1978) Guide to the marine isopods of southern Africa. South African Museum, Cape Town 173 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Kussakin OG (1979) Marine and brackish-water isopod Crustacea. Suborder Flabellifera. Academy of Science, U.S.S.R., Leningrad 470 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Leach WE (1814) Crustaceology. In: Brewster D (ed) The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. Baldwin, London, pp 383–437Google Scholar
  33. Leach WE (1818) Cymothoadées. In: Cuvier F (ed) Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles. Strasbourg et Levrault, Paris, pp 338–354Google Scholar
  34. Martin MB, Bruce NL, Nowak BF (2015a) Review of the buccal-attaching fish parasite genus Glossobius Schiödte & Meinert, 1883 (Crustacea: isopoda: Cymothoidae). Zootaxa 3973(2):337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Martin MB, Bruce N, Nowak B (2015b) Review of the fish-parasitic genus Ceratothoa Dana 1852 (Crustacea: isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Australia, with description of two new species. Zootaxa 3963(3):251–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Martin MB, Bruce N, Nowak B (2016) Monograph: review of the fish-parasitic genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 (Crustacea: isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Australia. Zootaxa 4119(1):1–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Milne-Edwards H (1840) Histoire naturelle des Crustacés comprenent l’anatomie la physiologie et la classification de ces animaux. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret 3:1840Google Scholar
  38. Monod T (1933) Mission Robert Ph. Dollfus en Egypt Tanaidacea et Isopoda Memoires de l'lnstitute Egyptienne 21:161–264Google Scholar
  39. Monod T (1934) Isopodes marins des campagnes du "de Lanessan". Notes de I' Institute Oceanographique de l'Indochine 23:1–22 plates 1–45Google Scholar
  40. Nierstrasz HF (1915) Die isopoden-sammlung im Naturhistorischen Reichsmuseum zu Leiden. - 1. Cymothoidae. Zoologische Mededeelingen, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden 1:71–108 plates 3, 4Google Scholar
  41. Pillai NK (1954) A preliminary note on the Tanaidacea and isopoda of Travancore. Bull Cent Inl Fish Res (University of Travancore) 3:1–21Google Scholar
  42. Pillai NK (1964) Parasitic isopods of the family Cymothoidae from south Indian fishes. Parasitology 54:211–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rameshkumar G, Ravichandran S, Trilles JP (2011) Cymothoidae (Crustacea, isopoda) from Indian fishes. Acta Parasitol 56(1):78–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Richardson H (1905) A monograph on the isopods of North America. Bull US Natl Mus 54:1–727. Google Scholar
  45. Schiödte JC, Meinert F (1881) Symbolaead Monographiam Cymothoarum Crustaceorum Isopodum Familiae. II. Anilocridae (Latin). Naturhist Tidsskr Ser III 13:1–166Google Scholar
  46. Schultz GA (1969) The marine isopod crustaceans. Dubuque, Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers 359 ppGoogle Scholar
  47. Seng LK, Seng LT (1990) The genus Nerocila (isopoda: Flabellifera) from the marine fish Triacanthus breverostris, Penang, Malaysia. J Biol Sci 1:87–100Google Scholar
  48. Serene R (1937) Inventaire des Invertebres marins de l'Indochine (lre liste). Notes de I' Institute Oceanographique de I'Indochine 30:1–83Google Scholar
  49. Stebbing Rev TRR (1900) On Crustacea brought by or. Willey from the south seas. In: Willey A (ed) 5(33Zoological results based on material from New Britain, new Guinea, loyalty islands, and elsewhere, collected during the years of 1895, 1896 and 1897. University Press, Cambridge, pp 605–690Google Scholar
  50. Thatcher VE, Blumenfeld CL (2001) Anilocra montti sp. n. (isopoda, Cymothoidae) a parasite of caged salmon and trout in Chile. Rev Bras Zool 18:269–276. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thatcher VE, de Loyola J, Silva E, Jost GF, Souza-Conceicao JM (2003) Comparative morphology of Cymothoa spp. (isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Brazillian fishes, with the description of Cymothoa catarinensis sp. Nov. and redescription of C. excise Perty and C. oestrum (Linnaeus). Rev Bras Zool 2:541–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Thatcher VE, de Araujo GS, Tax de lima J, Chellappa S (2007) Cymothoa spinipalpa sp. nov. (isopoda, Cymothoidae) a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Oligoplites saurus (Bloch and Schneider) (Osteichthyes, Carangidae) of Rio Grande do north state, Brazil. Rev Bras Zool 24:238–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tiwari KK (1953) On a new species of the rare cymothoid genus Agarna Schi. And Mein., parasitic on the clupeid fish Nematalosa nasus (Bl.) in the bay of Bengal. Rec Indian Museum 50:295–300 pls 6 Google Scholar
  54. Trilles JP (1975) Les Cymothoidae (Isopoda, Flabellifera) des collections du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris. II. Les Anilocridae Schiödte et Meinert, 1881. Genres Anilocra Leach, 1818 et Nerocila Leach, 1818. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 3e série, 290. Zoologie 200:303–340Google Scholar
  55. Trilles JP (1979) Les Cymothoidae (Isopoda, Flabellifera; parasites de poissons) du Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie de Leiden I!. Afrique, Amerique et regions IndoOuest-Pacifique. Zoologische Mededeelingen, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden 54:245–275Google Scholar
  56. Trilles JP (1994) Les Cymothoidae (Crustacea, Isopoda) du Monde. Prodrome pour une faune. Stud Mar Sin 21/22(1–2):5–288Google Scholar
  57. Trilles JP, Ravichandran S, Rameshkumar G (2011) A checklist of the Cymothoidae (Crustacea, isopoda) recorded from Indian fishes. Acta Parasitol 56(4):446–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Trilles JP, Ravichandran S, Rameshkumar G (2012) Catoessa boscii (Crustacea, isopoda, Cymothoidae) parasitic on Carangoides malabaricus (Pisces, Carangidae) from India. Taxonomy and host-parasite relationships. Acta Parasitol 57(2):179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Trilles JP, Rameshkumar G, Ravichandran S (2013) Nerocilaspecies (Crustacea, isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes. Parasitol Res 112(3):1273–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wägele J-W (1989) Evolution und phylogenetisches System der Isopoda. Stand der Forschung und neue Erkenntnisse. Zoologica 140:1–262Google Scholar
  61. Welicky RL, Hadfield KA, Sikkel PC, Smit NJ (2017) Molecular assessment of three species of Anilocra (isopoda, Cymothoidae) ectoparasites from Caribbean coral reef fishes, with the description of Anilocra brillae sp. n. ZooKeys 663:21–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Williams EH Jr, Bunkley-Williams L (1994) Ryukyua globosa n. Gen., n. Sp., and R. circularis n. Comb., parasitic in the opercular chambers of Pacific and Indian Ocean clupeid fishes. J Aquat Anim Health 6:151–161Google Scholar
  63. Williams LB, Williams EH (1981) Nine new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: isopoda: Cymothoidae) external parasites of west Indian coral reef fishes. Proc Biol Soc Wash 94:1005–1047Google Scholar
  64. Yamauchi T, Ohtsuka S, Nagasawa K (2005) Ectoparasitic isopod, Norileca indica (Crustacea, isopoda, Cymothoidae), obtained from the stomach of Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes, Coryphaenidae) in the Philippines. Biogeography 7:25–27Google Scholar
  65. Yu H, Li X (2003) Study on the Cymothoidae from Chinese waters. Stud Mar Sin 45:223–238 (In Chinese with English summary)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of IndiaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of Aquatic Biology & FisheriesUniversity of KeralaThiruvananthapuramIndia
  3. 3.Post Graduate Department of Zoology and Research Centre, Sree Narayana CollegeKannurIndia
  4. 4.University of MontpellierMontpellierFrance

Personalised recommendations