Comparative analysis of multiple paternity in different populations of viviparous black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, a fish with long-term female sperm storage
The black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) has a viviparous reproductive pattern and long-term sperm storage. Multiple paternity is frequently reported in this species. Six polymorphic microsatellite markers were applied to genotype 23 pregnant females (11 wild and 12 cultured) and 645 of their embryos, which were collected from the coast of the Shandong Peninsula in China. The number of sires and the quantity of paternal contributions for each brood were estimated. The results of a cultured group from Japan were reanalysed for comparison and illustration as a quoted group. Multiple paternity was detected in 10 (90.9%) of 11 broods in the wild group, 11 (91.7%) of 12 broods in the cultured group, and eight (88.9%) of nine broods in the quoted group. The number of sires in the cultured group appears to be significantly larger than that of the quoted group (P = 0.030), but the difference between the wild and the cultured groups was not significant (P = 0.219) nor was that between the wild and the quoted groups (P = 0.146). Additionally, in the 29 multiply sired broods, 22 broods were significantly skewed from equal paternal contributions, indicating that sperm competition and cryptic female choice might play key roles in the post-copulatory paternity biasing of this species. Furthermore, within the quoted data, the male was distinctly older than the female in 16 of 18 (88.9%) copulation pairs, demonstrating that females are apt at selecting older males to mate with. These results may provide some guidance or knowledge for artificial breeding, the evolutionary mechanism of polyandry, and sexual selection in black rockfish.
KeywordsBlack rockfish Multiple paternity Sperm competition Cryptic female choice
We thank Dr. Li Ning for valuable reviews of previous versions of this manuscript. We also thank Mr. Yan Long, Zhou Wei, Shan Binbin, Ding Pengwei and others for handling our samples. Additionally, we thank shipmaster Liu for collecting samples in the offshore waters of Jiaonan. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31172447) and the Public Science and Technology Research Funds Projects of Ocean (201305043, 201405010).
The collection of gravid wild females of S. schlegelii from the offshore waters of Jiaonan and Rushan was permitted by Chengxian Song and Yuchen Liu, managers of Jiaonan Tianyuan Aquatic CO. Ltd. and Rushan Chenyu Aquatic CO. Ltd., respectively. In addition, the collection of twelve gravid cultured females was permitted by Xuze Zhang, manager of Penglai Hongyu Aquatic Products CO., Ltd. Ethical approval was not applicable for this study because no endangered animals were involved. However, all handling of fish was conducted in strict accordance with the standards of Animal Care Quality Assurance in China.
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