Table 3 Instrument reliability and validity

From: Understanding continued smartwatch usage: the role of emotional as well as health and fitness factors

Constructs and items Stand. Loadings α C.R. AVE
Continuance Intention (Bhattacherjee 2001)   .942 .945 .851
I intend to continue using my smartwatch rather than discontinue its use. .844    
I predict I would continue using my smartwatch. .962    
I plan to continue using my smartwatch. .958    
Usefulness (Bhattacherjee and Lin 2015; Davis 1989)   .908 .913 .739
Using my smartwatch improves my performance. .845    
Using my smartwatch increases my productivity. .901    
Using my smartwatch enhances my effectiveness. .936    
I find my smartwatch to be useful. .708    
Satisfaction (Bhattacherjee 2001)   .899 .904 .694
How do you feel about your overall experience of smartwatch use?     
Very dissatisfied/very satisfied .768    
Very displeased/very pleased .876    
Very frustrated/very contented .865    
Absolutely terrible/absolutely delighted .837    
Confirmation (Bhattacherjee 2001)   .828 .832 .626
My experience with using the smartwatch was better than what I expected. .804    
The functions provided by the smartwatch were better than what I expected. .822    
Overall, most of my expectations from using the smartwatch were confirmed. .738    
Enjoyment (Venkatesh and Bala 2008)   .864 .872 .690
I find using the smartwatch to be enjoyable. .775    
The actual process of using the smartwatch is pleasant. .801    
I have fun using the smartwatch. .920    
Self-Quantification (Maltseva and Lutz 2018)   .929 .929 .725
I regularly collect data on my behavior using self-tracking devices. .889    
It is important for me to collect data on my behavior. .861    
I monitor my collected data regularly. .834    
I analyze my data regularly. .836    
I make connections between my behavior and the data that I get from self-tracking devices. .833    
Device Annoyance (developed based on Hutter et al. 2013)
I think it is disturbing if...
  .747 .767 .514
… my smartwatch asks me to exercise. .774    
… my smartwatch sends me motivational messages. .846    
… my smartwatch informs me about my friends’ sport activities. .528    
Goal pursuit Motivation (adapted from Zhang et al. 2019)   .954 .952 .768
Using my smartwatch keeps me motivated to exercise regularly. .845    
Using my smartwatch pushes me to increase the effort I put toward exercising. .798    
Using my smartwatch motivates me to exercise harder than I have in the past. .820    
Using my smartwatch keeps me motivated to live healthier. .927    
Using my smartwatch, motivates me to work towards a healthier lifestyle. .930    
Using my smartwatch motivates me to live healthier than in the past. .931