Table 1 Prior quantitative research on the continuance intention of smartwatches

From: Understanding continued smartwatch usage: the role of emotional as well as health and fitness factors

Author(s) Theoretical foundation Technology Research design Constructs
Cho and Lee (2017) U&GT Smart devices N = 104 (hierarchical regression analysis) Continuance Intention
Practical purposes: Daily-Info Seeking, Disability-Info Seeking, Emergency Contact
Social purposes: Amusement Seeking, Passing Time, Trendiness, Personal Relationships
Hong et al. (2017) Integration of DIT,
TAM, ECT & flow
Smartwatch N = 276 (CB-SEM) Usage, Continuance Intention to Use Smartwatch, Hedonic Value, Utilitarian Value, Consumer Innovativeness
Ogbanufe and Gerhart (2018) IS success model
IS continuance model (ECM)
Smartwatch N = 295 (PLS-SEM) Feature Use Continuance, System Satisfaction, Confirmation, Perceived Usefulness, Information Quality, System Quality (Perceived Convenience, Perceived Proximity, Haptics Feedback)
Song et al. (2018) TPB Smart-Connected Sports Products N = 322 (PLS-SEM) Continuance Intention to Use, Attitude, Perceived Behavioral Control, Social Comparison, Technology-related Factor (Perceived Usefulness), Fashion-related Factors (Perceived Comfort, Fashion Aesthetics), Control-related Factors (Technical Functionality, Facilitating Conditions)
Dehghani et al. (2018) Smartwatch N = 385 (PLS-SEM) Continuance Intention, Healthology, Complementary Goods, Hedonic Motivation, Operational Imperfection, Aesthetic Appeal
Nascimento et al. (2018) ECM Smartwatch N = 574 (PLS-SEM) Continuance Intention, Satisfaction, Confirmation, Perceived Usefulness, Habit, Perceived Usability, Perceived Enjoyment
Pal et al. (2018) ECM Smartwatch N = 312 (PLS-SEM) Continuance Intention, Satisfaction, Confirmation, Perceived Usefulness, Hedonic Motivation, Perceived Accuracy & Functional Limitations, Perceived Comfort, Perceived Privacy, Battery-life Concern, Self-socio Motivation
Shen et al. (2018) Expectation-Disconfirmation Theory Wearable Health Information Systems N = 428 (PLS-SEM) Intermittent Discontinuance (Breaks in Use, Controlled Use, Suspended Use), Neutral Satisfaction, Attitudinal Ambivalence, Neutral Disconfirmation
Cho et al. (2019) S-O-R Smartwatch N = 198 (PLS-SEM) Product attachment, Interactivity, Autonomy, Visual Aesthetics, Self-Expression, Satisfaction, Pleasure
Chuah (2019) Smartwatch N = 324 (PLS-SEM) Continuance Intention, Inspiration, Well-Being (Physical, Psychological, and Social Relations Well-Being), Perceived Benefits (Utilitarian, Hedonic, Social, and Symbolic Benefits), Perceived Risks (Privacy and Physical Risks), Previous Lifestyle Incongruence
Bölen (2020) ECM Smartwatch N = 348
Continuance Intention, Satisfaction, Confirmation, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Aesthetics, Individual Mobility, Habit
Gupta et al. (2020) ECM & Social Comparison Theory Smart Fitness Wearables N = 684
Intention to Recommend, Continuous Intention to Use, User Satisfaction, Confirmation, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Health Outcomes, Social Comparison Tendency,
This study ECM Smartwatch N = 335 (CB-SEM) Continuance Intention, Satisfaction, Confirmation, Perceived Usefulness, Enjoyment, Device Annoyance, Self-Quantification, Goal Pursuit Motivation