Decoding Patterns of Urban Dynamics in Class-1 City of Khammam, Telangana State, India

  • Shubhasmita Sahani
  • Vaddiparti Raghavaswamy
Research Article


Quantitative analysis of urban sprawl enables to understand the status, growth, direction, spatial pattern of urban growth. Spatio-temporal change analysis is essential to monitor and understand LULC dynamics. Present study illustrate use of IRS LISS4 and LANDSAT-5 (MSS) remote sensing data of 1991–2015, for change detection of LULC by quadrant and spatial metrics analysis in Class-1 town of Khammam in Telangana in south central India. Study revealed that extent of built-up area grew over 3.78–22.43 km2 in 15 years by > 500% pushing beyond municipal limits and onto peri urban area. Development of urban sprawl into peri urban area has been around 8 km2 during 2001–2015. Six landscape metrics were used to analyze to understand landscape characteristics in relation to urban growth size, shape, pattern; LecoS tool of QuantumGIS was used to compute Number of Patches, Patch Density, Edge Length, Fractal Dimension Index, Shannon’s Diversity Index and Shannon’s Equitable index. Results indicate that fragmentation of LULC increased due to pressure of anthropogenic activity. Core area of Khammam town is dense with single patch and compact shape, whereas, new patches of built up area of town are fragmented. Agriculture area is dominant patch with higher edge length. SDI value: 1.39 and SEI: 0.66 in 2015, show high diversity and low evenness among classes; dispersed fragmented outgrowth of urban sprawl, mostly towards NE and Eastern directions in a ‘leap-frog pattern’.


Urban pattern dynamics Spatial metrics Entropy LecoS Landscape analysis Leap-frog pattern 



The authors are thankful to Principal Scientist, GIS Lab and Director CRIDA for their encouragement and guidance. Thanks are due to Director, NRSC/ISRO and Deputy Director, RSAA for their kind support. The authors expresses gratitude to Director, DTCP, Hyderabad and his team for assistance during field visit and for providing maps/data of Khammam town. The authors express thanks to Head of Department of CSIT, and Chairperson BOS, JNTU Hyderabad for support and encouragement. Thanks to USGS–NASA Science Team for making available the LANDSAT-5 Data.


This work is a part of the authors Ph.D. Program

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author.

Supplementary material

12524_2017_718_MOESM1_ESM.tiff (348 kb)
Fig. 1 Shannon’s Diversity Index vs. Shannon’s Equitable Index (TIFF 348 kb)


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Copyright information

© Indian Society of Remote Sensing 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Spatial Information TechnologyJawaharlal Nehru Technological UniversityHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.GIS LabCentral Research Institute for Dryland AgricultureHyderabadIndia

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