Representation of the surface pathology of heritage objects imposes a problematic task. It usually involves the implementation of on-site visual inspections, and diagnostic procedures on-site, and after sampling, through minimally destructive laboratory tests, to produce area-specific results or two-dimensional mapping visualizations. Mapping of stone weathering is usually performed manually with time-consuming two-dimensional approaches, thus losing the importance of topology and, in general, its three-dimensional metric quality. The recent introduction of modified cameras to heritage science has enabled enhanced observation at higher resolutions, concomitantly having the capacity to produce datasets that can be used for direct image-based three-dimensional reconstruction. With this article, we present a novel work combining near-infrared imaging using a modified sensor, and contemporary dense multiple-image reconstruction software, to produce spectral models of historical stone sculptures. This combined approach enables the simultaneous capturing of the shape of the historical stone surfaces and the different responses of deteriorated materials in the near-infrared spectrum. Thus, we investigate the capacity of the suggested method to assist three-dimensional diagnosis and mapping of stone weathering. We explore the usability of produced spectral textures via classification and three-dimensional segmentation techniques to obtain and assess different types of visualization. We additionally evaluate the produced models for their metric and radiometric properties, by comparing them with models produced with visible spectrum imagery, acquired with similar capturing parameters.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Adamopoulos E, Rinaudo F (2019) An updated comparison on contemporary approaches for digitization of heritage objects. In: MetroArchaeo 2019 Proceedings. Catelani M, Daponte P (eds). Proceedings of the 5th IMEKO TC-4 International Conference on Metrology for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, Florence, Italy, 4th–6th December 2019. https://www.imeko.org/publications/tc4-Archaeo-2019/IMEKO-TC4-METROARCHAEO-2019-1.pdf
Adamopoulos E, Rinaudo F (2020) Enhancing image-based multiscale heritage recording with near-infrared data. ISPRS Int J Geo-Inf 9(4):269. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9040269
Adamopoulos E, Tsilimantou E, Keramidas V, Apostolopoulou M, Karoglou M, Tapinaki S, Ioannidis C, Georgopoulos A, Moropoulou A (2017) Multi-sensor documentation of metric and qualitative information of historic stone structures. ISPRS Ann Photogramm Remote Sens Spatial Inf Sci IV-2(W2):1–8. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-2-W2-1-2017
Adamopoulos E, Rinaudo F, Bovero A (2019) First assessments on heritage science oriented image-based modeling using low-cost modified and mobile cameras. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci XLII-2(W17):23–30. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W17-23-2019
Ansel J, Gerling C, Hofmeister S, Schick S (2016) Zwei Heiligenfiguren aus der katholischen Marienkirche in Bad Mergentheim. Ein außergewöhnliches Restaurierungsprojekt und der Testlauf für eine 3-D-Dokumentation. Denkmalpflege in Baden-Württemberg–Nachrichtenblatt der Landesdenkmalpflege 45(3):157–163
Apollonio FI, Basilissi V, Callieri M, Dellepiane M, Gaiani M, Ponchio F, Rizzo F, Rubino AR, Scopigno R, Sobra’ G (2018) A 3D-centered information system for the documentation of a complex restoration intervention. J Cult Herit 29:89–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2017.07.010
Callieri M, Ranzuglia G, Dellepiane M, et al (2013) Meshlab as a complete open tool for the integration of photos and colour with high-resolution 3D geometry data. In: Graeme E, Sly T, Chrysanthi A, Murrieta-Flores P, Papadopoulos C, Romanowska I, Wheatley D, (eds) Archaeology in the digital era volume 2. Proceedings of the 40th Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, Southampton, United Kingdom, 26th–30th March 2012
Campanaro DM, Landeschi G, Dell’Unto N, Leander Touati A-M (2016) 3D GIS for cultural heritage restoration: a ‘white box’ workflow. J Cult Herit 18:321–332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2015.09.006
Catelli E, Randeberg L, Strandberg H, Alsberg B, Maris A, Vikki L (2018) Can hyperspectral imaging be used to map corrosion products on outdoor bronze sculptures? J Spectral Imaging 7:a10. https://doi.org/10.1255/jsi.2018.a10
Chen S, Yang H, Wang S, Hu Q (2018) Surveying and digital restoration of towering architectural heritage in harsh environments: a case study of the millennium ancient watchtower in Tibet. Sustainability 10:3138. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093138
Chrysostomou CZ, Hadjimitsis DG, Agapiou A, et al (2010) Application of non-destructive techniques in assessing the quality of stone building materials in cultural heritage structures in Cyprus: use of ultrasonic and 3D laser scanning integrated approach for diagnostic tests. In: Euromed2010: Digital Heritage Short Papers. Ioannides M, Fellner D, Georgopoulos A, Hadjimitsis D, (eds). Proceedings of the 3rd International Euro-Mediterranean Conference dedicated on Digital Heritage, Limassol, Cyprus, 8th–13th November 2010
Columbu S, Verdiani G (2014) Digital survey and material analysis strategies for documenting, monitoring and study the Romanesque churches in Sardinia, Italy. In: Ioannides M, Magnenat-Thalmann N, Fink E, et al. (eds) Digital heritage. Progress in cultural heritage: documentation, preservation, and protection. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 446–453
Delaney JK, Thoury M, Zeibel JG, Ricciardi P, Morales KM, Dooley KA (2016) Visible and infrared imaging spectroscopy of paintings and improved reflectography. Herit Sci 4:6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-016-0075-4
Delegou ET, Tsilimantou E, Oikonomopoulou E, Sayas J, Ioannidis C, Moropoulou A (2013) Mapping of building materials and conservation interventions using GIS: the case of Sarantapicho Acropolis and Erimokastro Acropolis in Rhodes. Int J Heritage Digit Era 2:631–653. https://doi.org/10.1260/2047-4918.104.22.1681
Douglass M, Lin S, Chodoronek M (2015) The application of 3D photogrammetry for in-field documentation of archaeological features. Adv Archaeol Pract 3:136–152. https://doi.org/10.7183/2326-3722.214.171.124
Dumas F, Giamello M, Guasparri G, Meccheri M, Mugnaini S, Sabatini G, Scala A (2004) The meaning of the taroli on the marble surface of Michelangelo’'s David. In: Bracci S, Falletti F, Matteini M, Scopigno R (eds) Exploring David. Diagnostic tests and state of conservation. Giunti, Florence, pp 136–138
Fazio L, Lo Brutto M (2020) 3D survey for the archaeological study and virtual reconstruction of the “sanctuary of Isis” in the ancient Lilybaeum (Italy). Virtual Archaeol Rev 11:1. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2020.11928
Fitzner B (2002) Damage diagnosis on stone monuments-in situ investigation and laboratory studies. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium of the Conservation of the Bangudae Petroglyph, Ulsan City, South Korea, 15th July 2002
Fitzner B (2004) Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments. In: Kwiatkowski D, Löfvendahl R, (eds) Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Stockholm, Sweden, 27th June–2nd July 2004
Fonstad MA, Dietrich JT, Courville BC, Jensen JL, Carbonneau PE (2013) Topographic structure from motion: a new development in photogrammetric measurement. Earth Surf Process Landf 38:421–430. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3366
Gasanova S, Pagès-Camagna S, Andrioti M, Hermon S (2018) Non-destructive in situ analysis of polychromy on ancient Cypriot sculptures. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 10:83–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-016-0340-1
Georgopoulos A, Stathopoulou EK (2017) Data acquisition for 3D geometric recording: state of the art and recent innovations. In: Vincent ML, López-Menchero Bendicho VM, Ioannides M, Levy TE (eds) Heritage and archaeology in the digital age. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 1–26
Girelli VA, Tini MA, Dellapasqua M, Bitelli G (2019) High resolution 3D acquisition and modelling in cultural heritage knowledge and restoration projects: the survey of the fountain of Neptune in Bologna. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci XLII-2(W11):573–578. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W11-573-2019
Hassani F (2015) Documentation of cultural heritage; techniques, potentials, and constraints. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci XL-5(W7):207–214. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-5-W7-207-2015
Inkpen RJ, Fontana D, Collier P (2001) Mapping decay: integrating scales of weathering within a GIS. Earth Surf Process Landf 26:885–900. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.234
Kioussi A, Karoglou M, Labropoulos K, Bakolas A, Moropoulou A (2013) Integrated documentation protocols enabling decision making in cultural heritage protection. J Cult Herit 14:e141–e146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2013.01.007
Koehl M, Fuchs M (2019) 3D modelling of architectural blocks and antique sculptures for the experiments and the promotion of archaeological heritage – experiments in Alsace. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci XLII-2(W15):625–632. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W15-625-2019
Koutsoudis A, Vidmar B, Ioannakis G, Arnaoutoglou F, Pavlidis G, Chamzas C (2014) Multi-image 3D reconstruction data evaluation. J Cult Herit 15:73–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2012.12.003
Kozub B, Kozub P (2016) 3D photo monitoring as a long-term monument mapping method for stone sculptures. In: Science and art: a future for stone. Hughes J, Howind T, (eds) Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone Volume 2, Glasgow, Scotland, 6th–10th September 2016
Lerma JL, Ruiz LÁ, Buchón F (2000) Application of spectral and textural classifications to recognize materials and damages on historic building facades. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci XXXIII-B5:480–483
Lerma JL, Cabrelles M, Akasheh TS, Haddad NA (2012) Documentation of weathered architectural heritage with visible, near infrared, thermal and laser scanning data. Int J Heritage Digit Era 1:251–275. https://doi.org/10.1260/2047-49126.96.36.199
López JAB, Jiménez GA, Romero MS, García EA, Martín SF, Medina AL, Guerrero JAE (2016) 3D modelling in archaeology: the application of structure from motion methods to the study of the megalithic necropolis of Panoria (Granada, Spain). J Archaeol Sci Rep 10:495–506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.11.022
Malik US, Guidi G (2018) Massive 3D digitization of sculptures: methodological approaches for improving efficiency. IOP Conf Ser: Mater Sci Eng 364:012015. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/364/1/012015
Mandelli A, Achille C, Tommasi C, Fassi F (2017) Integration of 3D models and diagnostic analyses through a conservation-oriented information system. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci XLII-2(W5):497–504. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W5-497-2017
Marvasi M, Donnarumma F, Frandi A, Mastromei G, Sterflinger K, Tiano P, Perito B (2012) Black microcolonial fungi as deteriogens of two famous marble statues in Florence, Italy. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 68:36–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2011.10.011
Mascalchi M, Osticioli I, Cuzman OA, et al (2017) Diagnostic campaign and innovative conservation treatments carried out on the statue “La Speranza” by Odoardo Fantacchiotti. In: Calcagnile L, Daponte P, (eds) Proceedings of the 3rd IMEKO TC-4 International Conference on Metrology for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, Lecce, Italy, 23th–25th October 2017
McCabe S, Smith BJ, Warke PA (2007) An holistic approach to the assessment of stone decay: Bonamargy Friary, Northern Ireland. Geol Soc Lond, Spec Publ 271:77–86. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2007.271.01.09
McCarthy J (2014) Multi-image photogrammetry as a practical tool for cultural heritage survey and community engagement. J Archaeol Sci 43:175–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2014.01.010
Moropoulou A, Labropoulos K, Delegou ET et al (2013) Non-destructive techniques as a tool for the protection of built cultural heritage. Constr Build Mater 48:1222–1239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.03.044
Nascimbene J, Salvadori O (2008) Lichen recolonization on restored calcareous statues of three Venetian villas. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 62:313–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2007.11.005
Ortiz R, Ortiz P, Vázquez MA, Martín JM (2017) Integration of georeferenced informed system and digital image analysis to assess the effect of cars pollution on historical buildings. Constr Build Mater 139:320–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.02.030
Pfeuffer C, Rahrig M, Snethlage R, Drewello R (2018) 3D mapping as a tool for the planning of preservation measures on sculptures made of natural stone. Environ Earth Sci 77:312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7479-2
Pronti L, Romani M, Verona-Rinati G, Tarquini O, Colao F, Colapietro M, Pifferi A, Cestelli-Guidi M, Marinelli M (2019) Post-processing of VIS, NIR, and SWIR multispectral images of paintings. New discovery on the the drunkenness of Noah, painted by Andrea Sacchi, stored at Palazzo Chigi (Ariccia, Rome). Heritage 2:2275–2286. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030139
Russo M, Carnevali L, Russo V, Savastano D, Taddia Y (2019) Modeling and deterioration mapping of façades in historical urban context by close-range ultra-lightweight UAVs photogrammetry. Int J Archit Herit 13:549–568. https://doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2018.1440030
Salonia P, Negri A (2003) Historical buildings and their decay: data recording, analysis and transferring in an ITC environment. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci XXXIV-5(W12):302–306
Santos P, Ritz M, Fuhrmann C, Fellner D (2017) 3D mass digitization: a milestone for archeological documentation. Virtual Archaeol Rev 8:1. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2017.6321
Sfarra S, Ibarra-Castanedo C, Ridolfi S, Cerichelli G, Ambrosini D, Paoletti D, Maldague X (2014) Holographic interferometry (HI), infrared vision and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy for the assessment of painted wooden statues: a new integrated approach. Appl Phys A Mater Sci Process 115:1041–1056. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-013-7939-1
Siedler G, Vetter S (2013) Modern methods of documentation for conservation - digital mapping in metigo® MAP, software for documentation, mapping and quantity survey and analysis. In: Rogerio-Candelera MA, Lazzari M, Cano E (eds) Science and technology for the conservation of cultural heritage. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp 163–168
Suchocki C (2020) Comparison of time-of-flight and phase-shift TLS intensity data for the diagnostics measurements of buildings. Materials 13:353. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020353
Tiano P (2002) Biodegradation of cultural heritage: decay mechanisms and control methods. Seminar article. New University of Lisbon
Toprak AS, Polat N, Uysal M (2019) 3D modeling of lion tombstones with UAV photogrammetry: a case study in ancient Phrygia (Turkey). Archaeol Anthropol Sci 11:1973–1976. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-018-0649-z
Tucci G, Bonora V, Conti A, Fiorini L (2015) Benchmarking range-based and image-based techniques for digitizing a glazed earthenware frieze. ISPRS Ann Photogramm Remote Sens Spatial Inf Sci II-5(W3):315–322. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsannals-II-5-W3-315-2015
Tucci G, Bonora V, Conti A, Fiorini L (2017) High-quality 3D models and their use in a cultural heritage conservation project. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci XLII-2(W5):687–693. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W5-687-2017
Vandivere A, van Loon A, Dooley KA, Haswell R, Erdmann RG, Leonhardt E, Delaney JK (2019) Revealing the painterly technique beneath the surface of Vermeer’s Girl with a Pearl Earring using macro- and microscale imaging. Herit Sci 7:64. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-019-0308-4
Vázquez MA, Galán E, Guerrero MA, Ortiz P (2011) Digital image processing of weathered stone caused by efflorescences: a tool for mapping and evaluation of stone decay. Constr Build Mater 25:1603–1611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.10.003
Webb EK, Robson S, MacDonald L et al (2018) Spectral and 3D cultural heritage documentation using a modified camera. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci XLII–2:1183–1190. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-1183-2018
The authors would like to acknowledge Musei Reali Torino and Regione Piemonte for the courteous concession of permission to publish the results about the statue from the Fountain of Hercules, and the sculpture of Christ Crucified, respectively. Furthermore, the authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of Alessandro Bovero for his useful advice, Marie Claire Canepa coordinator of the Lab for Mural Paintings, Stonework And Architectural Surfaces at Fondazione Centro Conservazione e Restauro dei Beni Culturali “La Venaria Reale” for facilitating the data acquisition for the statues, and Dr. Stefania De Blasi and Marianna Ferrero at the Dept. of Programming and Development at Fondazione Centro Conservazione e Restauro dei Beni Culturali “La Venaria Reale” for making possible the publishing of the results produced at the labs of the conservation and restoration center mentioned above, outside of Turin.
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Framework Program for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020 (2014–2020) under the Marie-Skłodowska Curie Grant Agreement No. 754511 and from the Compagnia di San Paolo.
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Adamopoulos, E., Rinaudo, F. Near-infrared modeling and enhanced visualization, as a novel approach for 3D decay mapping of stone sculptures. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 12, 138 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-020-01110-5
- Near-infrared imaging
- Modified camera
- Multi-view image recording
- Decay mapping
- Heritage diagnostics